All species of grouper are endangered to some extent, but the Goliath Grouper is particularly threatened. Also known as the jewfish, it lives in the subtropical areas of the eastern Pacific (from Baja California to Peru) and the Atlantic (from North Carolina to Brazil). As the name suggests, it's a very large fish, growing to 7 feet in length in its 40-year life span. Overfishing of the Goliath grouper is a result of two main issues. First, it reproduces for only a short period of time, resulting in relatively few offspring compared to other species. Second, juveniles often become accidental bycatch in other fishing operations. What fish remain are targeted during spawning by hook-and-line fishing boats. Out of concern for the Goliath grouper's survival, the United States banned harvest of the species, and the IUCN rated them as critically endangered.