Introduction to Dog

The dog is a carnivorous mammal that was domesticated by humans thousands of years ago. It serves humans in a variety of ways—as a companion, hunter, herder, and protector, and as a draft animal. For the blind, dogs serve as guides. In some places, dog racing is a popular sport. Because of its loyalty, obedience, courage, and friendliness, the dog is often referred to as "man's best friend.”

Dogs have held a prominent place in mythology and literature. Dogs are mentioned in the Bible and in such historic works as The Odyssey. Prehistoric paintings of dogs have been discovered on the walls of some caves. Famous dogs from books, comic strips, television and motion pictures include Asta, Lassie, Rin-Tin-Tin, Benji, Toto, and Snoopy.

The domestic dog is Canis familiaris of the family Canidae, which also includes the coyote, jackal, and wolf. There are several species of wild dogs, including the dingo of Australia, the dhole of India, the raccoon dog of China, the hunting dog of South Africa, and the bush dog of South America.

Domestic dogs retain some wild instincts. This explains why some dogs chase moving objects, scavenge for food, and turn around several times before lying down, as their ancestors did to trample down high grass for a bed. Domestic dogs often sleep curled up with their tails over their faces, just as wild dogs do to protect their faces from the elements. Domestic dogs, like wild dogs, eat quickly and are protective of their food.

The smooth coat ChihuahuaThe smooth coat Chihuahua is a small domestic dog. .

General Description

Dogs range in height from 5 to 34 inches (12.7 to 86.4 cm) at the top of the shoulder blades. The smallest breed, the Chihuahua, weighs two to six pounds (0.9 to 2.7 kg); the largest breed, the mastiff, weighs up to 220 pounds (100 kg). Most dogs are born with a fairly long tail; the tail may be docked (cut) for appearance or cleanliness. The ears may be short or long, erect or hanging. In some breeds, the ears are cropped (cut) for appearance.

The dog has five toes on its forefeet and four toes on its hind feet. The innermost claw on each foot is called the dewclaw. The dewclaw is located slightly above the other claws and serves no apparent function. It is sometimes removed for cosmetic reasons. A dog's claws, unlike those of a cat, cannot be retracted.

There are five basic types of coats: short and smooth; wirehaired (hard and wiry); wavy, curly, or corded; long and silky with feathering (fringes of hair on the legs, ears, tail, or chest); and double. Dogs adapted to cold climates typically have a thick double coat. The outer layer is composed of guard hairs, coarse hairs that protect against ice and snow; the inner layer is composed of soft, woolly hairs that help prevent the loss of body heat. Coats are composed of either long or short hair, depending on the breed.

Most dogs have a thin, light coat during the summer and a heavier one during the winter. They shed the winter coat in spring and grow a new one in late fall. Some dogs do not grow winter coats and shed very little. Dogs kept indoors tend to shed all year. Some dogs have no hair at all.

A dog's skin contains glands that secrete oils onto the hairs, helping make the coat water-repellent. Dogs have sweat glands only on the soles of their feet, and pant to cool off. (Through the evaporation of saliva from the surface of the tongue, panting increases the rate of the loss of body heat.)

Dogs have very acute senses. The most highly developed are hearing and smell. Dogs can hear sounds at high frequencies, higher than the upper limit of human hearing. The sense of smell is the most important sense to a dog. Dogs can locate particular scents, follow them for long distances, and recognize them when reencountered. Taste buds on the tongue help the dog distinguish sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes.

Research indicates that dogs see colors, but cannot distinguish between the colors of the spectrum from green to red. Dogs have a relatively wide field of vision but a limited capacity to judge distances. A third eyelid, called the nictating membrane, is hidden behind the lower eyelid. It helps sweep away foreign particles from the eye.

A dog can feel pain, pressure, cold, and heat. Certain hairs on the body are sensitive organs of touch. Such hairs include the eyelashes, the hairs on the external parts of the ears, and the whiskers on the muzzle.

Dogs communicate by a variety of means. The sounds they make, such as barking, growling, and whining, can indicate a number of things, including aggression, excitement, fear, and submission. Dogs also communicate through physical means. When two unfamiliar dogs encounter one another, they typically sniff each other, holding their heads and tails erect, indicating interest and excitement.

In some cases, one of the dogs may act submissive by lowering its ears, tucking its tail under, and rolling over on its back. The other dog displays its dominance by tensing its body, keeping its ears and tail erect. It may bare its teeth, and the hair on its neck and back may stand on end.

Dogs also communicate with their tails. A tail held erect usually indicates cautiousness or excitement. A tail that is tucked under indicates fear or submission. Dogs wag their tails to indicate pleasure or to invite play.

Life Cycle

The typical female dog becomes sexually mature by the age of one. Some females mature by 6 months, others by the age of 18 months. The typical male dog becomes sexually mature by the age of one. An adult female dog is called a bitch; an adult male dog, a dog, or, if used for breeding, a stud.

A sexually mature female dog goes into heat (enters a period of sexual receptivity) twice a year for a period of about 10 days. During this time, the female emits an odor that attracts males.

After a gestation period of 63 days, the female whelps (gives birth to a litter of puppies). A litter may consist of up to 15 puppies, depending on the breed. Some breeds, such as the Pomeranian and Chihuahua, typically give birth to small litters, generally no more than three puppies; other breeds, such as the Airedale terrier and Great Dane, generally give birth to litters of 5 to 12 puppies.

Puppies are born with their eyes closed and do not open them until they are about 10 to 14 days old. Puppies grow rapidly and are ready to be weaned about six weeks after birth. At this time, they have all their milk teeth. The full set of 42 permanent teeth (22 in the lower jaw and 20 in the upper jaw) begins to erupt when a puppy is about five months old. Dogs usually reach full growth and maturity by the age of two.

The average life span of a dog is 12 years, although some dogs live 20 years or more. As a dog ages, the hairs around its muzzle and face become white or gray. Many old dogs suffer from arthritis, cataracts, hearing loss, and kidney disorders.

Breeding

There are more than 425 modern breeds of dogs, created by selectively breeding dogs with desired characteristics. Inbreeding involves breeding a dog with a close relative. Linebreeding involves breeding a dog with a more distant relative, such as a cousin. In about 10 generations, the dogs will reproduce true to type—that is, the offspring resemble their relatives. Such dogs are called purebreds and typically produce offspring with predictable traits; mongrels, or mixed breeds, do not.

How to Choose Your Dog

Before buying a dog, you should consider the following questions: What is the purpose of the dog? Do you want a watchdog or a companion? Some breeds are aloof and wary, others are friendly and playful. You should also consider how the dog responds to other pets and to children.

Do you want a male or a female? Males tend to be more aggressive than females and can be more difficult to train. However, they are more even-tempered. Do you want a purebred or a mixed breed? Purebred dogs are almost always more expensive to purchase. Appearance, temperament, and size are more predictable for purebred dogs than for mixed breeds. Do you want a long-haired or short-haired breed? Long-haired breeds need more grooming than short-haired breeds but are often hardier and better suited to cold climates. Do you want a big or small dog? Large dogs require more exercise and space than small dogs. Do you want a house dog or an outdoor dog? Some dogs do well in apartments, others need access to a yard.

In choosing a puppy, look for one that is fully weaned (at least eight weeks old); at this age it is able to eat solid food and drink water, and is fairly independent. The puppy should be healthy and alert. Do not buy a puppy that has a runny nose, watery eyes, or a fever—all are symptoms of diseases. Observe the behavior of the puppy: the traits that a dog shows as a puppy will probably be those that it displays as an adult. Hold the puppy to determine its responsiveness to petting and attention.

Care and Handling

Feeding

Puppies are active and need three meals a day until the age of six months, when they need two meals a day. A puppy needs a balanced diet containing protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. A diet of cooked meat, eggs, milk, and cottage cheese, or commercial puppy food provides the necessary nutrients and calories for a growing puppy. By the age of one year, a dog needs food only once a day and is ready for commercial dog food or a diet of meat, eggs, and cheese.

Water should be provided with meals and after exercise. Since many dogs develop tartar, a thick deposit of bacteria and food particles on the teeth, knuckle bones or commercial dog biscuits are recommended to help break down the deposits.

Housebreaking

By the age of three months, the puppy is able to control its bladder and bowels. At this point, it is ready to be paper-trained or taken directly outside. Paper-training for puppies is ideal for persons who live in apartments or are away from home during the day. It is an intermediate step in housebreaking, and should eventually lead to taking the puppy outside.

In paper-training, the puppy is confined to a small, easily cleaned room such as the kitchen. Initially, the floor is entirely covered with newspapers. The puppy is placed on the newspapers after meals, in the morning, and after activity. The puppy will typically sniff the newspapers, walk in a circle, and find a desirable spot to relieve itself. Once the puppy shows a preference for a particular spot, newspaper is placed only in that spot. Each time the paper is replaced, it is moved closer to an outside door, in preparation for the next step—placing newspaper outdoors on the grass. When the puppy relieves itself on the newspaper outside, it should be praised.

Newspaper is kept inside, as a precaution, until there have been several days of success with newspaper outside. The inside newspaper is then removed and the puppy is taken outside frequently throughout the day. The puppy will sniff around on the grass, relieving itself when it finds a desirable place. At this point the puppy should be completely trained, able to go long periods without soiling the floor. At night, the puppy can be confined to a bed, such as a wire cage, box, or crate lined with a mat or blanket. Most puppies will not soil their beds overnight.

Obedience

By the age of four to six months, the puppy is ready for obedience training. Most puppies are completely trained in about three months. Training sessions should last about 10 minutes. They should be conducted once or twice a day. A training collar, or choke, and a leather or nylon leash, or lead, are used. There are five basic commands: heel, sit, stay, come, and down. During training, the puppy should never be struck with the hand or with a rolled newspaper or other object. Instead, the word “no” should be used in a firm and authoritative way. Puppies need correction when they disobey and praise when they obey.

The puppy should first be taught to heel—to walk on the trainer's left with the shoulder next to the trainer's knee. The trainer should shorten the length of the leash until the puppy is in the correct position. The trainer should then begin walking in a straight line, giving the command "heel,” giving a quick jerk on the leash to get the puppy to follow. Once the puppy masters heeling in a straight line, it can be taught to continue heeling while the trainer turns to the left or right. The puppy should completely master this command before it is taken out in public, particularly on a crowded sidewalk.

Once the puppy has mastered heeling, it can be taught to sit. When the trainer stops walking, the command "sit” should be given, and the trainer should gently push down on the puppy's haunches until it is in a sitting position. The trainer should then begin walking again, giving the command "heel,” and giving a short jerk on the leash to get the puppy from a sitting to a standing position. The trainer should stop periodically, giving the command to sit. In a few sessions, the puppy should sit, without being given the command, whenever the trainer stops walking. Eventually, the puppy can be trained to sit at the curb before crossing a street, allowing the master to check the traffic conditions before proceeding.

After the puppy has been trained to sit, it can be taught to stay. While the puppy is in a sitting position, the trainer places the left hand in front of its muzzle and slowly backs away, giving the command "stay.” At first, the trainer should walk just to the end of the leash. Once the puppy has mastered this command while on the leash, it should be taught to stay while off the leash. This command is difficult and may take several sessions for the puppy to master.

The puppy should next be taught to come. With the puppy in a sitting position, the trainer should walk to the end of the leash, giving the command "come” and snapping the leash quickly to get the puppy to walk towards him. Once the puppy has mastered this command while on the leash, it can be taught to come while off the leash.

In later training sessions, the puppy can be taught to obey the command "down.” For this command, the puppy should be in a sitting position. The trainer gives the command, gently lifting the puppy's forelegs off the ground and easing the puppy into a prone position, placing the forelegs on the ground. The trainer should repeat this procedure, physically helping the puppy into the correct position until the puppy assumes the position on command.

Grooming

A dog's coat requires grooming to keep it healthy and free of dirt; the frequency depends on the breed. Brushing the coat removes dead hairs and distributes oils through the coat. Combing the coat helps untangle mats and clumps of hair, which occur frequently in long-haired dogs. A variety of combs and brushes for grooming can be bought at pet shops. Once a month, the toenails should be trimmed with special nail clippers and the ears should be cleaned with a cotton ball soaked in mineral oil or alcohol.

Dogs should not be bathed frequently since baths remove the skin's natural oils and dry out the coat. If the dog has dandruff, dirt, or an objectionable odor in its coat, it should be dusted with a dry, powdered shampoo or given a bath with mild soap or baby shampoo. A dog's teeth should be scrubbed periodically with a small toothbrush or a gauze pad dipped in baking soda.

Exercise

A dog needs daily exercise to remain healthy and physically fit. Daily walks or runs will help the dog retain muscle tone and vigor.

Shelter

A house dog needs a bed to retreat to when it is tired or sick. A dog bed can be made by placing an old blanket or rug in a basket or box. Dog beds may also be purchased. They are usually wicker baskets or plastic boxes with pads in them. A dog's bed should be placed in a secluded, draftfree site. Outdoor dogs need a protected shelter, such as a doghouse with a mat or towel on the floor.

What Are Your Responsibilities as an Owner?

When you get a dog, you take on responsibilities to your pet. You promise to give the dog love and keep it healthy and safe. That includes making sure the dog is properly fed, exercised, and taken to the veterinarian when needed for any illnesses or injuries.

Another responsibility of owning a dog is to have a vet spay or neuter that dog so the animal will not be able to produce puppies. (A vet spays female dogs and neuters male dogs.) Thousands of unwanted puppies are born every year.

Owners should also make certain their dog receives the necessary vaccinations (shots). That may include a vaccination against rabies, a terrible, painful disease that can be deadly.

Diseases and Disorders

Dogs are affected by numerous diseases, many of which can be prevented through routine immunizations. These preventable diseases include canine distemper, rabies, hepatitis, leptospirosis, and canine parvovirus infection. Dogs are also plagued by internal and external parasites, such as heartworms, tapeworms, fleas, ticks, and mites. Symptoms of illness include shivering, watery eyes and runny nose, coughing, vomiting, change in the frequency of urination, weight loss, lameness, and labored breathing.

Dogs should be taken to a veterinarian once a year for a thorough check-up. The veterinarian examines the dog's eyes, ears, teeth, and skin; checks the dog's heartbeat and temperature; and administers vaccines. Some drugs, particularly those for parasites, are given in capsule or tablet form for a period of several weeks. They can be swallowed or crushed into a powder and mixed in with the dog's food or water.

DogsDogs should see a veterinarian once a year.
Are There Dangers to Dogs Around the Home?

Dogs can stumble into plenty of danger at home. Here are some things to watch out for.Make sure that the windows in your home are not open wide enough for a dog to get through. An excited dog could jump right through the screen.

Never give a dog a toy that wasn’t made for dogs. Your dog could chew and shred it and might choke on the small pieces. Special tennis balls made for dogs are safer for your pet.

Common causes of serious poisoning in dogs are chemicals intended for such pests as rats and antifreeze that is used in cars. Be careful in any area, such as alleys and around garbage cans, where poisons may have been placed to kill pests. And, antifreeze from a car can be very toxic to dogs; its sweet taste makes dogs really enjoy its flavor. Do not let your dog drink from puddles.

Follow this rule: If you don’t know what it is or whether it’s harmful—don’t let your dog eat it, drink it, or chew on it.

What Are Some Common Signs of Illness in Sporting Dogs?

A dog can’t tell you, “I feel sick”—at least not in so many words. But dogs do give clues about how they’re feeling. A dog that isn’t interested in eating may be saying that it doesn’t feel well. After all, eating is usually a high point of a dog’s day.

One common health problem in golden retrievers is hip dysplasia (an abnormal development of the hip that can be passed down from a parent to offspring). In hip dysplasia, two large bones do not meet properly at the hip joint. As a result, one of the bones sometimes pops out of the joint. Signs of hip dysplasia can include difficulty when walking or running. Some dogs with hip dysplasia can have an operation to fix the problem.

If you see any signs in your dog that something is wrong, make an appointment with your veterinarian.

What Routine Veterinary Care Is Needed?

Your dog must be healthy to be happy. To stay healthy, it needs regular medical checkups with a veterinarian. Your family needs to find a vet you can all be comfortable with.

When you take your dog for a checkup, the vet will do a physical exam. That means he or she will check the dog’s body for signs of possible problems. The vet will also make sure that your dog has regular vaccinations (shots). A vaccine is a special medicine that protects people, dogs, and other animals from certain serious diseases.

The vet will help you keep your dog free of parasites, such as fleas, ticks, and ear mites. These parasites make your dog uncomfortable. They can also spread diseases.

Experts say that a dog should have a complete checkup with a vet every year.

National Organizations and Dog Shows

In many countries there are national organizations that recognize and publish standards for purebred dogs, maintain records, and sponsor dog shows. The Canadian Kennel Club, the Société Centrale Canine in France, and the Kennel Club in Great Britain, for example, all perform these functions. In some countries, such as Germany, these functions are performed by individual breed registries.

In the United States there are more than 140 national associations for various breeds and groups of breeds. Some are independent, maintaining their own registries and running their own dog shows. Most, however, are affiliated with either the American Kennel Club or the United Kennel Club.

The American Kennel Club (AKC)

is the larger of the two organizations. It is a nonprofit organization founded in 1884 for the protection and advancement of purebred dogs, and to adopt and enforce uniform rules regulating dog shows. It maintains a library and a museum. Headquarters are in New York City.

The United Kennel Club (UKC)

is a privately owned corporation. It has functions and goals similar to those of the AKC but places a stronger emphasis on the working or hunting qualities of breeds. The UKC was founded in 1898 and has headquarters in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Each purebred dog has a pedigree, a record of its lineage, maintained by the AKC, the UKC, or one of the individual associations. The registry certificate issued for each dog contains such information as the name of the dog's sire (father) and dam (mother), the dog's date of birth, and its sex. It also lists the dog's registry number.

Purebred dogs are eligible to compete in dog shows, field trials, and obedience trials. Only those breeds recognized by the sponsoring organizations are eligible to compete, although some non-recognized breeds can compete in a miscellaneous class. Dogs are judged on standards established by the breed organizations. The material that follows describes dog shows and related events as conducted by the AKC.

A dog show is an elimination contest in which dogs are judged on conformation, a term used to describe how closely dogs conform to established standards for the breed. Such standards include eye color; size, shape, and position of the ears; carriage of the tail; and coat color. Dogs are judged against individuals of the same breed and sex.

There are two main types of dog shows: specialty shows, which are limited to dogs of a particular breed; and all-breed shows. The winner of a specialty show is called Best of Breed; the winner of an all-breed show is called Best in Show.

To become a champion, a dog must win a total of 15 championship points in shows judged by at least three different persons. Up to 5 points may be won at any one show, depending on the number of dogs competing in the show. Two of the wins must be "majors” (3, 4, or 5 points) won under different judges.

Field trials, for sporting dogs and hounds, are contests in which the dogs' hunting skills are tested and judged. The tests are made under realistic conditions in which the dogs demonstrate their hunting abilities. The winner of a licensed field trial lasting four days is recognized as a Field Champion by the AKC.

Obedience trials measure the dog's ability to follow verbal commands and hand signals, retrieve objects, follow scents over a designated course, and jump over small fences. Obedience trials are open to all breeds of dogs. They may be held separately or as part of a larger show. Three titles are given, each with more demanding requirements than the one preceding it: Companion Dog, C.D.; Companion Dog Excellent, C.D.X.; and Utility Dog, U.D. In tracking tests for dogs that hunt by scent, such as bloodhounds, two titles are given: Tracking Dog, T.D.; and Tracking Dog Excellent, T.D.X.

History of Dogs

Dogs are descended from Miacis, a small carnivorous mammal that lived in North America over 60,000,000 years ago. Miacis was a civet-like mammal that had a long body and tail, short legs, and large teeth for tearing and chewing meat. It had two descendants, Daphaenus, the ancestor of bears, and Hesperocyon, the ancestor of Tomarctus, the first doglike mammal. Tomarctus lived in North America about 15,000,000 years ago. From Tomarctus evolved Canis, the genus of wolves and dogs. Canis first appeared about 6,000,000 years ago. In time, some of these animals traveled from North America to Asia across a prehistoric land bridge.

Archeological findings from the Middle East indicate that dogs were domesticated there about 12,000 years ago. Most biologists believe that dogs were bred from wolves. Dogs were valued for their hunting abilities and as sentinels. Later, when other animals had been domesticated, dogs were used to guard and herd flocks.

By 3000 B.C. there were several breeds of dogs in Asia, Italy, and the British Isles. Among them were mastiff-type dogs, large powerful dogs that hunted by scent. They were originally bred in ancient Egypt and China. In ancient Rome, mastiff-type dogs were used in arenas, such as the Circus Maximus, to fight gladiators, bears, bulls, lions and tigers, and other dogs. In Asia during this same period there were greyhound-type dogs, such as the Afghan hound and the saluki, that hunted by sight. Several greyhound-type breeds were brought to Ireland and Scotland, where they were later used to develop such breeds as the Irish wolfhound and the Scottish deerhound. By 2000 B.C. toy dogs had been popularized as lap dogs by the aristocracy in the Far East.

By 1000 B.C. several breeds of dogs, such as the Cardigan Welsh corgi, were in existence in central Europe and the British Isles. They served primarily as family dogs and as guardians. With the invention and spread of firearms in the 15th and 16th centuries, various breeds of hunting dogs were developed to locate game, flush it from cover, and retrieve it.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, breeds such as the boxer and mastiff were developed for the sports of bullbaiting and bearbaiting. When these sports were made illegal in the 1800's, dogfighting became popular. Several breeds, such as the bull terrier and Staffordshire bull terrier, were developed for this sport. (These breeds are sometimes called pit bulls, referring to their bulldog ancestry and to the pits in which fighting took place.)

By the mid-1800's, dogs had become popular as pets, and dog shows were organized. Dog clubs were then established for particular breeds and each club set its own standards.

Breeds of Dogs

Purebred dogs are commonly divided into seven groups: herding dogs, hounds, nonsporting dogs, sporting dogs, terriers, toy dogs, and working dogs. All of the breeds in the listings are recognized by the American Kennel Club unless otherwise indicated. Standards are given for height and weight. Height is measured from the ground to the withers.

Herding Dogs

were originally bred to drive livestock from one place to another and to keep herds or flocks together. They are easy to train and are very responsive to voice commands. The larger breeds, such as the Belgian sheepdog, herd livestock by circling the animals, barking loudly as they round them up. The smaller breeds, such as the Shetland sheepdog, dart in and out of the herd, nipping at the heels of the animals to keep them together. Herding dogs are intelligent and sensitive. They make good pets and watchdogs, but require vigorous daily exercise. They are sometimes classified as working dogs rather than as a separate group and were formerly classified by the AKC in that way.

Australian Cattle Dog,

a breed developed from a cross between a collie and dingo, a wild dog of Australia, to herd cattle. It has a muscular build, erect ears, and a low-set tail that hangs down. The short, rough coat is a mottled blue with tan, black, or blue markings, or speckled red with dark red markings. The dog is noted for its stamina, responsiveness to training, and protectiveness of its owner. Ideal height: males, 18 to 20 inches (45.7 to 50.8 cm); females, 17 to 19 inches (43.2 to 48.3 cm). Typical weight: 40 to 45 pounds (18.1 to 20.4 kg).

Australian Shepherd,

a breed that is both a guard dog and a herder. It was bred in Australia from herding dogs from Spain, England, and Scotland. The dog has a collie-like build. It has a double coat that may be blue merle, red merle, solid red, or solid black. The coat is of medium length and straight or slightly wavy. The forelegs are feathered and the hair on the hind legs forms breeches. Typical height: males, 20 to 23 inches (50.8 to 58.4 cm); females, 18 to 21 inches (45.7 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: males, 50 to 65 pounds (22.7 to 29.5 kg); females, 40 to 5050 pounds (18.1 to 22.7 kg). This breed is recognized by the UKC but not by the AKC.

Bearded Collie,

a sheepdog of southern Scotland. It is a medium-sized dog with hanging ears and a low-set tail. The shaggy coat hides the ears and tail, and forms prominent eyebrows. The puppies are born with a black, blue, brown, or fawn coat with white markings; the coat lightens with age. The bearded collie is intelligent and makes a good companion. Ideal height: males, 21 to 22 inches (53.3 to 55.9 cm); females, 20 to 21 inches (50.8 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: 50 pounds (22.7 kg).

Belgian Malinois,

a short-haired sheepdog of Belgium. It is a muscular dog with a wedge-shaped head; erect, triangular ears; and a long, bushy tail. The coat is rich fawn to mahogany with black markings on the ears and a black mask on the face. The Belgian malinois is intelligent and makes a protective guard dog. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 70 to 80 pounds (31.8 to 36.3 kg).

The Belgian malinoisThe Belgian malinois is a short-haired sheepdog with a dark muzzle and long, bushy tail.
Belgian Sheepdog,

a solid black sheepdog. It has a muscular body; erect, triangular ears; and a bushy tail. The long, harsh coat forms a thick collar around the neck. There is slight feathering on the legs and tail. The Belgian sheepdog is wary of strangers and makes a good guard dog. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 70 to 80 pounds (31.8 to 36.3 kg).

Belgian Tervuren,

a long-haired breed related to the Belgian sheepdog. It is a strong, muscular dog with a wedge-shaped head, erect ears, and a thick tail. The moderately harsh coat is fawn to mahogany with black markings on the shoulders, back, legs, tip of the tail, and forming a mask on the face. The Belgian Tervuren is intelligent and makes a good guard dog and companion. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 70 to 80 pounds (31.8 to 36.3 kg).

Border Collie,

a fast, strong breed used to handle livestock. The dog has a deep chest, broad head, straight, muscular forelegs, and wide-set hind legs with feathering. The black, gray, or blue merle coat is dense and curly. The border collie is quite territorial and can be stubborn. Typical height: 17 to 21 inches (43.2 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: 30 to 50 pounds (13.6 to 22.7 kg). Females are slightly smaller. This breed is recognized by the UKC, but not the AKC; it can, however, compete in AKC shows in the miscellaneous class.

Bouvier Des Flandres,

a cattle-herding dog from Belgium. The high-set ears are cropped or left natural and the tail is docked. The rough coat is fawn, salt and pepper, gray, black, or brindle. The hair on the face forms eyebrows, a beard, and a mustache. The Bouvier des Flandres makes a good watchdog, family pet, and guide dog for the blind. Ideal height: males, 24.5 to 27.5 inches (62.2 to 69.9 cm); females, 23.5 to 26.5 inches (59.7 to 67.3 cm). Typical weight: 75 to 95 pounds (34.0 to 43.1 kg).

Briard,

a French sheepdog. It has high-set ears and a long, feathered tail that turns up at the tip. The shaggy double coat is black, gray, or tawny. The hair hangs down over the eyes and ears, and forms a mustache and beard. The briard can be stubborn and independent, and needs vigorous exercise and frequent grooming. Ideal height: males, 23 to 27 inches (58.4 to 68.6 cm); females, 22 to 25.5 inches (55.9 to 64.8 cm). Typical weight: 75 to 90 pounds (34.0 to 40.8 kg).

Cardigan Welsh Corgi,

a small breed originally used to herd cattle in Wales. It is a low-set, heavy-boned dog with short legs and a long body. It has large, pointed ears and a bushy tail. The dense coat is red, sable, brindle, black, black and tan, blue merle, or blue merle and tan, with white markings on the head, neck, chest, legs, and tail. The dog is playful and makes a good companion and watchdog. Ideal height: 10.5 to 12.5 inches (26.7 to 31.8 cm). Ideal weight: males, 30 to 38 pounds (13.6 to 17.2 kg); females, 25 to 34 pounds (11.3 to 15.4 kg).

Collie,

a long-haired sheepdog of Scotland. It is among the most popular breeds in the United States. The collie has a narrow, wedge-shaped head; almond-shaped eyes; semi-prick ears; and a long, bushy tail. The coat is sable and white; tricolor; blue merle; or white with sable, blue merle, or tricolor markings. Two varieties are recognized by the AKC: (1) rough-coated; and (2) smooth-coated. The collie is intelligent and active, and makes a good watchdog or family pet. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 60 to 75 pounds (27.2 to 34.1 kg); females, 50 to 65 pounds (22.7 to 29.5 kg).

The long-haired collieThe long-haired collie is a Scottish sheep dog with a narrow head and long, bushy tail.
Corgi,

See, in this list, Cardigan Welsh Corgi; Pembroke Welsh Corgi.

German Shepherd Dog,

a versatile, short-haired breed noted for its intelligence and courage. It is popular as a pet, watchdog, and guide dog for the blind, and is used in police work. The German shepherd dog has a muscular build; pointed, erect ears; a wedge-shaped muzzle; and a long, bushy tail. The harsh double coat is black, tan, black and tan, or grayish-silver. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 65 to 90 pounds (29.5 to 40.8 kg).

Old English Sheepdog,

a shaggy breed originally used in England to drive sheep and cattle to market. It has a short tail, hanging ears, and comparatively small feet. The thick double coat covers the eyes and ears, and is gray, grizzle, blue, or blue merle, with patches of white. The old English sheepdog is affectionate and makes a good companion. Ideal height: to 24 inches (61.0 cm). Typical weight: 65 to 90 pounds (29.5 to 40.8 kg).

Pembroke Welsh Corgi,

similar to the Cardigan Welsh corgi but with smaller ears, a more tapering muzzle, and a shorter tail. The harsh, straight coat is red, sable, fawn, tan, or black, often with white markings. The Pembroke Welsh corgi is energetic and playful. I deal height: 10 to 12 inches (25.4 to 30.5 cm). I deal weight: males, to 30 pounds (13.6 kg); females, to 28 pounds (12.7 kg).

The Pembroke Welsh corgiThe Pembroke Welsh corgi is a low-set, heavy-boned dog with short legs and a long body.
Puli,

a medium-sized Hungarian dog that was originally bred to tend sheep. It has a unique double coat—as the dog matures, the two coats become matted, forming long, tightly curled cords that cover the face, tail, body, and legs. The puli has a compact body with hanging, V-shaped ears and a short tail that curls up at the tip. It is energetic and makes a very protective watchdog. I deal height: males, 16 to 18 inches (40.6 to 45.7 cm); females, 15 to 17 inches (38.1 to 43.2 cm). Typical weight: 30 pounds (13.6 kg).

The puliThe puli has a double coat forming long, tightly curled cords that cover the entire body.
Shetland Sheepdog,

or Sheltie, a breed resembling a miniature rough-coated collie. It has a wedge-shaped head, semi-prick ears, and a long, bushy tail. The thick coat is feathered on the legs and forms a ruff around the neck. The coat is black, blue merle, or sable, with white, tan, or white-and-tan markings. The dog is gentle and easily trained, and makes a good watchdog and companion. I deal height: 13 to 16 inches (33.0 to 40.6 cm). Typical weight: 20 pounds (9.1 kg).

Hounds

Hounds were originally bred to hunt mammals, particularly badgers, bear, deer, elk, foxes, and rabbits. Many of the oldest breeds are hounds; among them are the bloodhound, saluki, and Norwegian elkhound.

Hounds are typically divided into two groups: sight hounds, breeds that locate game by using their eyesight, and scent hounds, breeds that locate game by using their sense of smell. Some breeds of hounds, such as the basenji, dachshund, Norwegian elkhound, otter hound, and Rhodesian ridgeback, use both senses to hunt game.

The sight hounds, such as the greyhound and saluki, have long, thin legs; long bodies; and light-boned builds. They have short ears, tight lips, and a curved spine. The tail usually curls under the body when the dog is standing. Sight hounds are swift runners that bark and bay as they chase game.

Scent hounds, such as the basset hound and beagle, have fleshy, hanging lips; long ears; and short, smooth coats. Some breeds have folds of skin on the face and neck. Scent hounds are not as fast as sight hounds but have a keener sense of smell.

In the United States, hounds are used to hunt foxes, rabbits, and raccoons. Greyhounds and whippets are used for racing in the United States and Europe.

GreyhoundsGreyhounds are racing dogs with a streamlined body and a smooth coat.
Afghan Hound,

a sight hound once used to hunt leopards and gazelles in Afghanistan. It has long, hanging ears; large, flat feet; and a curved tail that hangs over its back. The long, silky coat, which may be any color, is heavily feathered on the legs, ears, and tail, and there is a long topknot on the head. The Afghan hound is playful but can be aloof. I deal height: males, 26 to 28 inches (66.0 to 71.1 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 60 pounds (27.2 kg); females, 50 pounds (22.7 kg).

The Afghan houndThe Afghan hound has long ears, a curved tail, and a long topknot on the head.
American Foxhound,

a hardy, intelligent scent hound raised chiefly for fox hunting. The breed was developed from English foxhounds brought to the United States in 1650. The American foxhound has long, hanging ears and an erect tail. The short, hard coat may be any color but it is usually white with patches of black and tan. I deal height: males, 22 to 25 inches (55.9 to 63.5 cm); females, 21 to 24 inches (53.3 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 35 to 45 pounds (15.9 to 20.4 kg)

Basenji,

an ancient African hound. It does not bark but makes a yodeling or chortling sound. It has a short, silky coat that is chestnut red, black, or black and tan. The feet, chest, and tip of the tail are white. The basenji has small, erect ears; a deeply furrowed forehead; and a tail that curls tightly over the back. The dog is obedient and good with children. The basenji, unlike other breeds, cleans itself by licking its coat. Ideal height: males, 17 inches (43.2 cm); females, 16 inches (40.6 cm). I deal weight: males, 24 pounds (10.9 kg); females, 22 pounds (10.0 kg).

The basenjiThe basenji has a short, silky coat and a tail that curls tightly over the back.
Basset Hound,

a short-legged, heavy-boned scent hound bred for rabbit hunting. Its long, floppy ears and wrinkles over the eyes give it a mournful appearance. It has a long tail that is carried erect. The hard coat can be any of a variety of colors, often with a dark, saddle-shaped marking on the back. The dog's scenting ability is second only to that of the bloodhound. I deal height: to 14 inches (35.6 cm). Typical weight: 25 to 45 pounds (11.3 to 20.4 kg).

Basset houndsBasset hounds have long, floppy ears and wrinkles over the eyes.
Beagle,

an active, excitable scent hound bred for rabbit hunting. It is one of the most popular breeds in North America. The beagle has rounded, hanging ears and an erect tail. The coat is short and is a combination of black, tan, and white. Height: Two classes are recognized by the AKC—up to 13 inches (33.0 cm) and 13 to 15 inches (33.0 to 38.1 cm). Typical weight: 18 to 30 pounds (8.2 to 13.6 kg).

Black and Tan Coonhound,

a scent hound used for hunting raccoons and opossums at night. It barks when the quarry is treed. The dog has a short, dense coat; long, hanging ears; and a long tail that is held erect. The black and tan coonhound is a hardy dog, able to withstand extreme temperatures. I deal height: males, 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.6 cm); females, 23 to 25 inches (58.4 to 63.5 cm). Typical weight: 70 to 80 pounds (31.8 to 36.3 kg).

Bloodhound,

a large scent hound with loose folds of skin around the head and neck. It has the keenest sense of smell of all dogs. It is used to track lost persons and escaped convicts; after sniffing an article of clothing belonging to the missing person, the dog is able to follow the person's scent on the ground. When it finds the person, it does not attack but stands guard. The bloodhound has long, low-set ears and an otter tail. The short, dense coat is black and tan, red and tan, or tawny. Ideal height: males, 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.6 cm); females, 23 to 25 inches (58.4 to 63.5 cm). Typical weight: males, 90 to 110 pounds (40.8 to 49.9 kg); females, 80 to 100 pounds (36.3 to 45.4 kg).

Borzoi,

or Russian Wolfhound, a swift sight hound native to Russia. It has small, flat ears; long legs; and a long, curved tail. The long, curly coat is feathered on the legs, tail, and chest, and comes in a variety of colors. The borzoi can be stubborn and requires vigorous daily exercise. I deal height: males, at least 28 inches (71.1 cm); females, at least 26 inches (66.0 cm). I deal weight: males, 75 to 105 pounds (34.0 to 47.6 kg); females, 60 to 90 pounds (27.2 to 40.8 kg).

The borzoiThe borzoi has a long, curly coat feathered on the legs, tail, and chest.
Dachshund,

a low-set, long-bodied hound originally bred to hunt badgers. (The name is German for "badger dog.”) It has a wedge-shaped head; long, rounded ears; short legs; and a tapering tail. Three varieties of coat are recognized by the AKC: (1) short-haired, or smooth; (2) wirehaired; and (3) long-haired. The coat is red, black, chocolate, gray, or white, with tan markings; dappled gray; or brown with dark patches. The dachshund is a popular pet in the United States. Typical height: 9 inches (22.9 cm). Typical weight: 20 pounds (9.1 kg).

English Foxhound,

a scent hound used in packs for fox hunting. It is sturdier, heavier, and slower than the American foxhound. The English foxhound has rounded, hanging ears and a tail that is held erect. The hard coat is typically white, black, and tan and may have yellow patches. Typical height: males, 25 inches (63.5 cm); females, 24 inches (61.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 70 pounds (31.8 kg); females, 60 pounds (27.2 kg).

Greyhound,

an ancient sight hound originally bred for Egyptian royalty. The greyhound is a racing dog and can run up to 38 miles per hour (61 km/h). The dog has a streamlined body; small, fine ears; and a long, thin tail that tapers at the tip. The smooth coat is fawn, brindle, black, or white, with various markings. Ideal height: 27 to 30 inches (68.6 to 76.2 cm). Ideal weight: males, 65 to 70 pounds (29.5 to 31.8 kg); females, 60 to 65 pounds (27.2 to 29.5 kg).

Harrier,

a small English scent hound used for hunting rabbits. It has soft, hanging ears; an erect tail; and a dense coat that may be any color. It is uncommon in the United States, although it has been used here for hunting since colonial times. Ideal height: 19 to 21 inches (48.3 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: males, 50 pounds (22.7 kg).

Ibizan Hound,

an ancient sight hound of Egypt. It has amber eyes, prominent prick ears, and a sickle tail. The coat is smooth or wirehaired, and is red and white, solid red, or solid white. The Ibizan hound is noted for its strength, vigor, and friendliness. Ideal height: males, 23.5 to 27.5 inches (59.7 to 69.9 cm); females, 22.5 to 26 inches (57.2 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 50 pounds (22.7 kg); females, 42 to 49 pounds (19.1 to 22.2 kg).

Irish Wolfhound,

a sight hound originally bred to hunt elk and wolves. It is the tallest breed of dog, and is built like a greyhound but is heavier and stronger. It has small ears that lie flat against the head. The rough, hard coat is gray, brindle, red, black, white, or fawn. The Irish wolfhound is an outdoor dog and needs vigorous daily exercise. Ideal height: males, 32 to 34 inches (81.3 to 86.4 cm); females, more than 30 inches (76.2 cm). Ideal weight: males, at least 120 pounds (54.4 kg); females, at least 105 pounds (47.6 kg).

The Irish wolfhoundThe Irish wolfhound is the tallest breed, heavily built and strong.
Norwegian Elkhound,

an ancient hound originally used to hunt elk, wolves, and bears in Norway. It has erect ears, a plumed tail, and a strong, muscular body. The double coat is gray with black-tipped hairs and lighter underparts. The dog makes a friendly, intelligent family pet. Ideal height: males, 20.5 inches (52.1 cm); females, 19.5 inches (49.5 cm). Typical weight: males, 55 pounds (24.9 kg); females, 48 pounds (21.8 kg).

The Norwegian elkhoundThe Norwegian elkhound has a muscular body with a thick, gray coat and dark face.
Otter Hound,

a shaggy hound originally used for hunting otters in England and France. It has long, hanging ears; webbed feet; and a sickle tail that is feathered. The double coat is composed of a coarse outer layer and a water-resistant inner layer. The coat may be any color, but is usually blue and white with tan and black markings. The breed is uncommon in the United States. Ideal height: males, 24 to 27 inches (61.0 to 68.6 cm); females, 22 to 26 inches (55.9 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 75 to 115 pounds (34.0 to 52.2 kg); females, 65 to 100 pounds (22.6 to 34.8 kg).

Petit Basset Griffon Vandeen,

an ancient French hound. It was developed to hunt small game by scent over rough and difficult terrain. The dog is compact, tough, and robust. It has long eyebrows, a beard and mustache, and a tapered tail. The long, rough coat is white with lemon, orange, black, or tricolor markings. Ideal height: 13 to 15 inches (33.0 to 38.1 cm). Ideal weight: males, 38 to 42 pounds (17.2 to 19.1 kg); females, 30 to 34 pounds (13.6 to 15.4 kg).

Pharaoh Hound,

an ancient Egyptian sight hound bred to hunt rabbits. It has large, erect ears and a tapering, whiplike tail. The short, glossy coat ranges in color from tan to chestnut with white markings on the toes, chest, and tip of the tail. When the dog is excited, the nose and ears turn a deep rose color. The pharaoh hound is intelligent and good with children. Ideal height: males, 23 to 25 inches (58.4 to 63.5 cm); females, 21 to 24 inches (53.3 to 61.0 cm). Typical weight: 40 to 60 pounds (18.1 to 27.2 kg).

Rhodesian Ridgeback,

a hound originally bred to hunt lions and other large game in Africa. “Ridgeback” refers to the ridge of stiff hair along the spine that grows in the opposite direction from the rest of the coat. The Rhodesian ridgeback has a large head; high-set, hanging ears; and a tail that curls up at the tip. It makes a good house pet. Ideal height: males, 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.6 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 75 pounds (34.0 kg); females, 65 pounds (29.5 kg).

Saluki,

the oldest purebred dog in the world. It is believed to be at least 2,000 years old, and was considered sacred by the ancient Arabians. The saluki has hanging ears and a long, curved tail. The long, graceful body is covered with silky hair, and the ears, legs, and tail are feathered. The coat is white, cream, fawn, golden, red, white, or black and tan. The saluki is a swift sight hound and was once used to hunt gazelles but is now used in racing. Typical height: 23 to 38 inches (58.4 to 96.5 cm). Typical weight: 55 to 60 pounds (24.9 to 27.2 kg).

Scottish Deerhound,

a large sight hound originally bred to hunt deer in Scotland. It has a long, narrow head; a pointed muzzle; button ears; and a long tail that hangs down. The wiry coat is gray-blue. The Scottish deerhound makes a quiet, obedient family dog. Typical height: males, 30 to 32 inches (76.2 to 81.3 cm); females, over 28 inches (71.1 cm). Ideal weight: males, 85 to 110 pounds (38.6 to 49.9 kg); females, 75 to 95 pounds (34.0 to 43.1 kg).

Whippet,

a racing dog developed from the greyhound. It can reach a speed of 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). This sight hound has a streamlined body; small ears held flat against the head; and a whiplike tail carried under the body. The sleek, short coat is gray, tan, brindle, or white. The whippet makes a quiet family pet. Ideal height: 19 to 22 inches (48.3 to 55.9 cm); females, 18 to 21 inches (45.7 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: males, 28 pounds (12.7 kg); females, 20 pounds (9.1 kg).

The whippetThe whippet has a streamlined body and a whip-like tail carried under the body.

Non-Sporting Dogs

Non-sporting dogs are those that were not developed for a specific purpose or are no longer used as they were originally intended. The group consists of a diversity of breeds and includes such breeds as the bulldog, poodle, and Dalmatian. Many of the breeds of non-sporting dogs are popular and all make good pets.

Bichon Frise,

a poodle-like breed originally from Spain. It has a soft, curly white coat with buff, cream, apricot, or gray markings. The drop ears and plumed tail are covered with long, flowing hair; there is a topknot of hair on the head. The bichon frise is gentle and playful, and is good with children. Ideal height: 9 to 12 inches (22.9 to 30.5 cm). Typical weight: 7 to 12 pounds (3.2 to 5.4 kg).

Boston Terrier,

one of the few American breeds. It was developed from the bulldog and the English terrier, a breed no longer recognized by the AKC. It has bat ears and a short tail. The short, smooth coat is black or brindle, with white markings on the muzzle, chest, and forelegs, and a white blaze on the face. The Boston terrier makes a gentle, friendly pet. Ideal height: males, 17 inches (43.2 cm); females, 16 inches (40.6 cm). Weight: Three classes are recognized by the AKC—under 15 pounds (6.8 kg); 15 up to 20 pounds (6.8 to 9.1 kg); and 20 to 25 pounds (9.1 to 11.3 kg).

The Boston terrierThe Boston terrier has bat ears, wide-set eyes, and a stubby tail.
Bulldog,

a short, squarely built dog originally bred in England for bullbaiting. It has short, bowed legs; small, high-set ears; and a short tail. The massive head is covered with wrinkles. The dog has a short muzzle with an upturned nose and a protruding lower jaw. The short, smooth coat is brindle, white, red, fawn, or piebald. The bulldog is gentle and makes a good companion. Typical height: males, 15 inches (38.1 cm); females, 14.25 inches (36.2 cm). Typical weight: males, 50 pounds (22.7 kg); females, 40 pounds (18.1 kg).

The bulldogThe bulldog has a wrinkly head, a short muzzle with an upturned nose, and a protruding lower jaw.
Chinese Shar-Pei,

a breed that originated in China around 200 B.C. It almost became extinct in 1949 when Mao Tse-tung ordered that a luxury tax be levied on all privately owned dogs in China. Since many people could not afford this tax, most dogs were killed. The most outstanding feature of this breed is its wrinkly, extremely loose skin. The dog has a puglike face and a stout, square body with a deep chest. The coat is fawn, cream, or black. Shar-peis are gentle, easily trained dogs. Ideal height: males, 18 to 20 inches (45.7 to 50.8 cm). Ideal weight: males, 40 to 55 pounds (18.1 to 24.9 kg). Females are slightly smaller. This breed is not recognized by the AKC but has its own breed association, the Chinese Shar-Pei Club of America.

The Chinese shar-peiThe Chinese shar-pei has wrinkly, loose skin, a puglike face and a stout, square body.
Chow Chow,

an ancient breed of northern China. It is the only breed with a blue-black tongue. The chow chow has a short muzzle; deep-set eyes; small, erect ears; and a plumed tail that curls over the back. The large head is rimmed with a thick ruff. The dense, coarse coat can be any color. The chow chow is aloof and stubborn, and is a one-person dog. Typical height: males, 17 to 20 inches (43.2 to 50.8 cm); females, 16 to 18 inches (40.6 to 45.7 cm). Typical weight: males, 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg); females, 45 to 55 pounds (20.4 to 24.9 kg).

The chow chowThe chow chow is the only breed with a blue-black tongue.
Dalmatian,

an ancient breed named for Dalmatia (a region of Yugoslavia), where it was first bred. It is sometimes referred to as "coach dog” because it was trained to run alongside horse-drawn coaches, serving as a companion to the horses and as a guardian of the horsemen and passengers. The dog has a muscular build; high-set, hanging ears and a long, tapering tail. The short, glossy coat is white with black or liver-brown spots. The Dalmatian is a versatile dog, often used for hunting, retrieving, or herding. It is also a popular circus performer and a firehouse mascot. Ideal height: 19 to 23 inches (48.3 to 58.4 cm). Typical weight: 55 to 65 pounds (24.9 to 29.5 kg).

The DalmatianThe Dalmatian has a distinctive spotted white coat.
Finnish Spitz,

a Finnish breed that has been used to hunt small game and birds. It has a dense golden-red coat, a pointed muzzle, small erect ears, and a curled tail. The dog is active, friendly, and faithful, and is good with children. Typical height: males, 17.5 to 20.0 inches (44.5 to 50.8 cm); females, 15.5 to 17.5 inches (39.4 to 44.5 cm). Ideal weight: males, 26 to 31 pounds (11.8 to 14.1 kg); females, 22 to 26 pounds (10.0 to 11.8 kg).

French Bulldog,

a small bulldog with prominent bat ears and a domed forehead. The dog has a muscular build, a broad chest, and a short tail that is carried low. The soft, smooth coat is brindle, fawn, white, or brindle and white. The French bulldog is intelligent and is a one-person dog. Typical height: 12 inches (30.5 cm). Weight: Two classes are recognized by the AKC—under 22 pounds (10.0 kg) and 22 to 28 pounds (10.0 to 12.7 kg).

Keeshond,

a Dutch breed with small, triangular ears and a plumed tail that curls over the back. The thick, double coat is gray and black with cream-colored hair on the legs and feet. The dog has spectacle-like markings on the eyes, and thick hair on the rump and hind legs that forms “trousers.” The keeshond makes a good family pet and watchdog. Ideal height: males, 18 inches (45.7 cm); females, 17 inches (43.2 cm). Typical weight: males, 40 pounds (18.1 kg); females, 35 pounds (15.9 kg).

Lhasa Apso,

a breed from Tibet originally used as a watchdog in monasteries. It has hanging ears, short legs, and a plumed tail that is carried high over the back. The long, dense coat covers the face and body, and may be any color. The Lhasa apso is wary of strangers and can be aggressive. Ideal height: 10 to 11 inches (25.4 to 27.9 cm). Typical weight: 14 to 15 pounds (6.4 to 6.8 kg).

Poodle,

a popular breed in France and the United States. It is a squarely built dog with a long, straight muzzle and hanging ears. The tail is docked and is carried high. The harsh, dense coat may be any solid color. It is professionally clipped in several styles, the most popular of which are characterized by shaved hind legs and a pompon at the tip of the tail. The poodle is an intelligent, affectionate pet. Two sizes are recognized by the AKC, miniature and standard. Ideal height: miniature, 10 to 15 inches (25.4 to 38.1 cm); standard, over 15 inches (38.1 cm). Typical weight: miniature, 15 to 16 pounds (6.8 to 7.3 kg); standard, 50 to 55 pounds (22.7 to 24.9 kg).

The poodleThe poodle is a squarely built dog with a long, straight muzzle and hanging ears.
Schipperke,

a Belgian breed originally used to guard canal boats. (The name is Dutch for "little captain.”) It has a thick, black coat that forms a ruff around the neck and "culottes” on the hind legs. The dog has triangular, erect ears, and the tail is docked. The schipperke is alert and active, and is good with children. Typical height: 12 to 13 inches (30.5 to 33.0 cm). Ideal weight: to 18 pounds (8.2 kg).

Tibetan Spaniel,

a small breed originally kept as a companion and watchdog in monasteries and palaces in Tibet. It has a dome-shaped head; high-set, hanging ears; and a plumed tail that curls over the back. The silky, dense coat may be any color. The Tibetan spaniel is intelligent and lively. Typical height: 10 inches (25.4 cm). Ideal weight: 9 to 15 pounds (4.1 to 6.8 kg).

Tibetan Terrier,

an ancient breed of Tibet that was highly prized because it supposedly brought good luck to its owner. It has V-shaped, hanging ears and a plumed tail that curls over the back. The long, thick coat covers the eyes and ears, and may be any color. The dog can adapt to extreme temperatures. Ideal height: 14 to 16 inches (35.6 to 40.6 cm). Ideal weight: 18 to 30 pounds (8.2 to 13.6 kg).

The Tibetan terrierThe Tibetan terrier has a long, thick coat that covers the eyes and ears.

Sporting Dogs

Sporting dogs, sometimes called gun dogs, were originally bred for bird hunting. Most sporting dogs are large with medium to long legs and drooping ears. The long-haired breeds have feathered legs and tails.

Sporting dogs are generally classified by their method of hunting. The spaniel goes ahead of the hunter and flushes the game. The setter goes ahead of the hunter and “sets,” or crouches down, when it locates the game. The pointer goes ahead of the hunter and assumes a rigid, pointing posture with one foot in mid-stride when it locates the game. The setter and pointer are often used to retrieve game on land or in water. The retriever stays near the hunter and retrieves the game once it has been shot.

What Is a Sporting Dog?

Long ago in England, sporting meant hunting for sport. In ancient times, hunters trained falcons to help them find and catch game (animals being hunted). Eventually, people began training dogs to help them hunt. Over time, hunters bred dogs to produce better hunting dogs. Four kinds of sporting dogs—pointers, retrievers, setters, and spaniels—were developed to help those hunting with guns.

Pointers look for game. When they find it, they stand still and point with snout (nose) and paw. Retrievers, such as goldens, retrieve, or fetch and bring back, birds that have been shot. Setters find game birds and creep up on them to scare, or set, them in place for the hunter. Spaniels are trained to do a variety of the hunting tasks listed above. Together, these kinds of dogs make up the group that we call sporting dogs today.

How Did Breeds of Sporting Dogs Develop?

A breed is a group of animals that have the same type of ancestors. Because many of the breeds of sporting dogs arose many centuries ago, we know little about their early development.

One of the earliest sources about dogs is a book published in London in 1570 by a physician named John Caius. In his book, Of English Dogs, Caius listed and described the types of dogs then living in England. He identified setters, water spaniels, and land spaniels. The water spaniels were similar to retrievers today.

Art is another source of information about what dogs were like in the past. Artists working long ago sometimes featured or included dogs in their paintings. Artists often painted spaniels. Spaniel means from Spain, so historians believe that these dogs came to England from Spain.

What Are Some Other Sporting Dog Breeds?

Sporting dogs include pointers, retrievers, setters, and spaniels. These dogs were all bred to help hunters using guns. Breeds in this group are called gundogs in the United Kingdom.

Today, the American Kennel Club recognizes 26 separate breeds in the sporting group. That number will probably grow because new breeds come along every now and then.

American Water Spaniel,

both flushes and retrieves game. It has a broad head; long, wide ears; and a long, slightly curved tail. The short, curly coat is dark chocolate or solid liver. The dog is eager to learn and easily trained. Ideal height: 15 to 18 inches (38.1 to 45.7 cm). Ideal weight: males, 28 to 45 pounds (12.7 to 20.4 kg); females, 25 to 40 pounds (11.3 to 18.1 kg).

The American water spanielThe American water spaniel is a hunting dog with a thick, curly brown coat.
Brittany Spaniel,

a French spaniel with relatively long legs. It has short, hanging ears and a short tail. The flat, wavy coat is orange and white, or liver and white. The Brittany spaniel has a good disposition and a strong desire to please its master. Ideal height: 17.5 to 20.5 inches (44.5 to 52.1 cm). I deal weight: 30 to 40 pounds (13.6 to 18.1 kg.)

The Brittany spanielThe Brittany spaniel is a hunting dog with a wavy coat of orange and white or liver and white.
Chesapeake Bay Retriever,

a hardy breed named after the icy, rough waters where it was first used to retrieve ducks. It has webbed feet and a thick, oily coat that repels water. The coat ranges from dark brown to the color of dead grass. The dog has a broad head; triangular, hanging ears; and a long tail. The Chesapeake Bay retriever is one of the few breeds developed in the United States. Ideal height: males, 23 to 26 inches (58.4 to 66.0 cm); females, 21 to 24 inches (53.3 to 61.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 65 to 80 pounds (29.5 to 36.3 kg); females, 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg).

Clumber Spaniel,

a low-set, heavy-boned dog. It is the heaviest spaniel breed. It is named for Clumber Park, an estate in Nottinghamshire, where it was introduced into England from France. The dog has a massive head with low-set, hanging ears; the tail is docked. The dense, silky coat is white with lemon or orange markings, and freckles on the muzzle and forelegs. The dog is gentle and affectionate. Ideal height: males, 19 to 20 inches (48.3 to 50.8 cm); females, 17 to 19 inches (43.2 to 48.3 cm). Ideal weight: males, 70 to 85 pounds (31.8 to 38.6 kg); females, 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg).

Cocker Spaniel,

the smallest sporting dog. It is named for its original use in flushing woodcocks in England. The dog has long, hanging ears, and the tail is docked. The long, silky coat is feathered on the legs, ears, and stomach. Three color varieties are recognized by the AKC: (1) any solid color other than black; (2) solid black; and (3) parti-colored. The cocker spaniel is popular in the United States as a pet and hunting dog. Ideal height; males, 14.5 to 15.5 inches (36.8 to 39.4 cm); females, 13.5 to 14.5 inches (34.3 to 36.8 cm). Typical weight: 26 to 28 pounds (11.8 to 12.7 kg).

What Is a Cocker Spaniel?

There is an English cocker spaniel breed and an American cocker spaniel. The two breeds are closely related.

Cocker spaniels were bred as hunting dogs. They gained the name “cocker” because they were good at hunting birds called woodcocks. American cockers stand about 15 inches (38 centimeters) tall at the shoulder. They are smaller than golden retrievers or English springer spaniels.

Most cocker spaniels today are family pets. They are usually cheerful, sweet family dogs that like children. Like other sporting dogs, cocker spaniels need regular exercise and like to be outdoors. They also need to have their thick, furry coats groomed regularly.

Curly-coated Retriever,

a hardy breed originally used to retrieve ducks. It has a curly coat that is black or liver. The ears are small and low-set, and the tail is long. The curly-coated retriever is intelligent and easy to train and makes a good family dog. It is uncommon in the United States. Typical height: 24 inches (61.0 cm). Typical weight: 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg).

English Cocker Spaniel,

similar to the cocker spaniel but with a larger head and body. It has long, hanging ears and a compact body; the tail is docked. The silky coat is white, black, black and tan, liver red, orange, lemon, or roan, with feathering on the ears, chest, stomach, and legs. The English cocker spaniel makes a playful family dog. Ideal height: males, 16 to 17 inches (40.6 to 43.2 cm); females, 15 to 16 inches (38.1 to 40.6 cm). Ideal weight: males, 28 to 34 pounds (12.7 to 15.4 kg); females, 26 to 32 pounds (11.8 to 14.5 kg).

The English cocker spanielThe English cocker spaniel is a popular sporting dog larger than the typical cocker.
English Setter,

the oldest breed of sporting dog in the United States. It has a long, narrow head; silky, hanging ears; and a straight, feathered tail. The long, silky coat is black, white, and tan; black and white; blue belton; lemon and white; lemon belton; liver and white; liver belton; orange and white; orange belton; or solid white. The English setter is an intelligent, mild-tempered dog that requires vigorous exercise. Ideal height: males, 25 inches (63.5 cm); females, 24 inches (61.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 70 pounds (31.8 kg); females, 65 pounds (29.5 kg).

The English setterThe English setter is a bird dog with a long, feathered tail and spotted coat.
English Springer Spaniel,

a dog originally bred to hunt pheasants. It is named for the way it flushes game by springing at it. The dog has long, hanging ears and the tail is docked. The flat or wavy coat is liver and white, black and white, liver and tan, black and tan, tan and white, liver, black, or roan. The English springer spaniel is an excellent retriever and a good family pet. Ideal height: males, 20 inches (50.8 cm); females, 19 inches (48.3 cm). Typical weight: 49 to 55 pounds (22.2 to 24.9 kg).

The English springer spanielThe English springer spaniel has a coat thick enough to resist water and brambles.
Field Spaniel,

a larger version of the cocker spaniel. It has low-set, hanging ears, and the tail is docked. The silky, wavy coat is black, liver, golden-liver, mahogany, or roan, often with tan markings. The dog is intelligent and makes a good family pet. Ideal height: 18 inches (45.7 cm). Typical weight: 35 to 50 pounds (15.9 to 22.7 kg).

Flat-coated Retriever,

a black or liver-colored dog with a straight, lustrous coat. The chest, tail, and legs are feathered. The dog has small ears and a long, Straight tail. It rarely barks and is noted for its eagerness to please its master. Ideal height: males, 23 to 24.5 inches (58.4 to 62.2 cm); females, 22 to 23.5 inches (55.9 to 59.7 cm). Typical weight: 60 to 70 pounds (27.2 to 31.8 kg).

German Shorthaired Pointer,

a versatile hunting dog from Germany. With its water-repellent coat and webbed feet, it is well adapted to retrieving waterfowl. The dog has a long muzzle and broad, hanging ears. The tail is docked. The short coat is liver or liver and white. The German shorthaired pointer is an active dog, requiring vigorous daily exercise. Ideal height: males, 23 to 25 inches (58.4 to 63.5 cm); females, 21 to 23 inches (53.3 to 58.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg); females, 45 to 60 pounds (20.4 to 27.2 kg).

German Wirehaired Pointer,

similar to the German shorthaired pointer but with a wirehaired coat. The dog has rounded, hanging ears, and the tail is docked. The hair on the face forms a mustache, beard, and bushy eyebrows. The coat is liver and white with white spots. The nose is dark brown. The dog is active and wary of strangers. Ideal height: males, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm); females, at least 22 inches (55.9 cm). Typical weight: 60 to 70 pounds (27.2 to 31.8 kg).

Golden Retriever,

a friendly, good-natured dog. It has a dense golden-yellow coat that is flat or wavy with feathering on the legs and tail. The dog has a broad head; short, hanging ears; and a long, thick tail. The golden retriever is a popular family pet, watchdog, and hunting dog. Ideal height: males, 23 to 24 inches (58.4 to 61.0 cm); females, 21.5 to 22.5 inches (54.6 to 57.2 cm). Ideal weight: males, 65 to 75 pounds (29.5 to 34.0 kg); females, 55 to 65 pounds (24.9 to 29.5 kg).

When and Where Did the Golden Retriever Breed First Appear?

Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks (MARSH banks) lived from 1820 to 1894. He was a hunting sportsman and a dog lover. Marjoribanks raised dogs on his estate, called Guisachan (pronounced KUSH guhn), near the village of Tomich in Scotland. Marjoribanks searched the countryside for special dogs from which to breed the best litters of puppies.

One day, Marjoribanks saw a retriever with a yellow coat. He immediately bought that dog and named it Nous (noos). Nous became the father of a litter of yellow puppies. The mother was a water spaniel named Belle. Their pups, born in 1868, started the line of dogs we call golden retrievers, or goldens.

Dogs born of the line founded by Belle and Nous were taken to the United States and had puppies. In 1932, the American Kennel Club (AKC), the major registry of purebred dogs in the United States, recognized the golden retriever.

What Kind of Personality Might a Golden Have?

Dogs within a breed are not exactly alike, of course, but often they do share many personality traits.

Most people agree that golden retrievers are usually outgoing, friendly, playful dogs. Goldens like being around people and are fun-loving dogs. Dogs from this breed, however, are happier and more secure when they have been carefully trained.

Most golden owners end up with happy, lovable dogs. It’s important to remember, though, that a dog’s personality is partly formed by the way it is treated and trained. Owners have a responsibility to provide a home in which their goldens will be able to be happy.

Is a Golden Retriever the Dog for You?

You might think that anyone would want a golden retriever. But, in fact, these wonderful dogs aren’t for everyone. There are some good reasons to choose a dog that is not a golden. Some people, for instance, have a small home. They might need a smaller dog that will be comfortable in tight spaces. Further, because goldens have thick coats and shed a lot of fur, people who are particular about housekeeping may want a dog that sheds less.

Finally, though no one should ignore any pet, some breeds of dogs can better accept being alone for longer periods of time. Goldens are not, however, one of those breeds. Golden retrievers need human companionship and lots of exercise and play, especially outdoors. People who are away from home a lot probably shouldn’t choose a golden.

What Should You Look for When Choosing a Golden Puppy?

One way to start would be to find a good breeder of golden retrievers. A place to look is on the Web sites of the American Kennel Club (AKC), the Golden Retriever Club of America (GRCA), or the Golden Retriever Club of Canada (GRCC).

Good breeders are careful when selecting a male and female dog for breeding. They try to screen out dogs with health problems that could get passed on to puppies.

Once you’ve found a good breeder, what should you look for in a litter of puppies? Trust your feelings. Which puppy do you especially like? Which puppy seems curious about you? If color is an issue, examine the puppies’ ears. Most puppies darken as they grow, but their ears are usually closest to their grown-up color.

Should You Get an Older Golden Instead of a Puppy?

Puppies are fun and adorable, but they are not for everyone. They are full of bounce and energy at every waking moment. They make messes and need a lot more attention than older dogs. Whether to get a puppy or a mature dog is probably a decision best left to the adults in your family. Raising and training a puppy can be a great family project, but everyone must be willing to accept the challenge.

Fully grown goldens are calmer and more settled, but they are just as lovable as puppies. Further, grown dogs are usually already housetrained (trained to relieve themselves outside of the house). Breeders of golden retrievers may have older dogs for sale as well as puppies.

Should You Consider a Rescue Golden?

Not everyone who gets a pet can keep it for the pet’s entire life. Sometimes dogs are abandoned, or left behind, by owners. And, sometimes dogs get lost.

Fortunately, there are rescue organizations today for most dog breeds. Often, rescue volunteers place abandoned dogs in foster homes while they try to find each dog a permanent home.

Golden retrievers have a talent for adapting to new situations. Most of the time, rescue goldens accept their new owners and continue being happy, lovable pets.

If a puppy isn’t practical for your family, you might want to discuss getting a golden retriever from a rescue organization. Most of these organizations are set up on a local or state basis.

What Does a Golden Retriever Eat?

Like people, dogs need to eat a diet that will keep them healthy. Dogs need different nutrients, or nourishing things, than people do. That’s why it is best for a dog to eat dog food, instead of being fed on table scraps (human food). Your veterinarian can suggest a type of dog food that is just right for your dog.

You might think that anything that is safe for you to eat is safe for your dog, but that is just not true. Some people foods are actually poisonous to dogs. For example, chocolate can make dogs sick or even kill them. Onions, grapes, and raisins are also very bad for dogs. Before you give a dog anything other than dog food to eat, make sure it is safe.In addition to food, fresh drinking water must be available to a dog at all times. Water is important to your pet’s health.

Where Should a Golden Sleep?

Dogs like routine, that is, they like for things to stay much the same from day to day. Sticking to one sleeping place and routine every night helps your dog feel safe and secure.

Some dog owners buy a bed for their dog. A good dog bed should be cushioned and it should be in a safe, quiet place.

Many dog experts say that a dog should have its own crate. This crate gives a dog a place to sleep and to feel safe. A dog crate is a big box with a large door. It might be made of metal wire or of heavy plastic with a lot of air holes. You can make a cozy sleeping area inside a dog crate by putting soft bedding inside.Some dogs sleep in their owner’s bed. Before you let your golden sleep with you, however, you should ask a grown-up. You may not sleep as soundly with your dog in bed with you. Furthermore, once you’ve let your dog sleep with you, it won’t be easy to keep it out of your bed if you should later change your mind about sharing.

How Do You Groom a Golden?

The “golden” in “golden retriever” describes the dog’s thick, rich coat of shiny gold. Actually, a golden’s coat has two layers. The coat you see is the outer coat, made up of long “guard hairs.” These hairs contain an oil that repels water, so the outer coat is rather like a raincoat. The hidden, inner coat is made up of soft, downy fur that helps the dog keep warm in cold weather. Dogs shed most of their inner coat of fine, wispy hairs in the spring.

A golden’s coat needs regular grooming to look and be its best. A golden should be brushed thoroughly once or twice a week. Your veterinarian or groomer can help your family choose the right combs, brushes, and other grooming tools.

Your dog’s nails, teeth, and ears need to be cared for as well. And its coat and skin must be kept free of fleas and ticks. Your vet or groomer can help you with these tasks, too.

What About Training a Golden?

Sometimes, adorable puppies grow up to be big, annoying, uncontrollable dogs. This happens when a puppy is not properly trained.

To begin with, every dog needs to learn who is boss. Long ago, when dogs were wild, they lived, worked, and played in groups called packs. Every dog pack had a lead dog that was “the boss.” Your dog still wants to know who is boss and that should be the person or people who will train it.

Dog experts rate golden retrievers as one of the most trainable dog breeds. Goldens like to learn. They just need to be guided in the right direction. You can get help training your dog from an expert at a dog obedience school. To find out about dog obedience schools in your area, check with your veterinarian or the local chapter of a golden retriever club.

What Kinds of Exercise or Play Are Needed?

Spending all day in front of the television or in an easy chair will not satisfy a healthy, young or middle-aged golden. Remember that goldens were bred to go hunting. They still like being outside. They run and play to work off all that sporting-dog energy.

Don’t forget that word “retriever.” One of the games your golden will enjoy most is retrieving, or fetching, balls, sticks, and Frisbees. Just make sure that whatever you throw for your dog is too big to be swallowed.

Dog experts say that mature goldens need at least one hour of exercise over the course of each day. Puppies don’t need as much scheduled exercise. They’ll work off their energy with all kinds of puppy play and mischief.

Do Goldens Like Water?

Golden retrievers were bred to splash through ponds to retrieve birds for hunters. Most goldens enjoy water, and that makes bathing a golden a lot easier and more pleasant than it would be with many other breeds.

Goldens enjoy swimming, and they are fine swimmers. At pet stores, you can buy floating rubber toys or toys on a rope for your dog to retrieve from water. Of course, that’s only if you have a fresh, clear lake or pond available.

Your golden must only be allowed to swim in a safe, clean body of water. Always follow this rule: Let adults decide when it’s safe for your dog—or you—to go swimming. After your dog swims or bathes, take the time to dry its coat well with a big, fluffy towel. Leaving its coat wet for too long could cause the dog to have skin problems.

How Can You Help a Golden Care for Its Young?

If your family has a golden mother with a litter, or if friends or relatives do, you need to know how to behave around the dogs. A mother dog naturally protects her young. If she thinks that the pups are under threat, she may snarl or try to bite. That’s why it’s important to approach a litter of puppies in the right way. Never do so without permission of an adult who is present. When you get close to the dogs, keep your voice quiet and don’t make any sudden moves.

A mother dog provides all the things her pups need. However, if a pup gets away from the litter box and seems lost, you may gently take it back. Very young puppies can become dangerously chilled if they get in cool drafts, so a puppy needs to be in a warm place with its mother.

Are There Special Organizations for Golden Owners?

You’ve already read about the Golden Retriever Clubs of America (GRCA) and of Canada (GRCC). The GRCA was formed in 1938 and the GRCC in 1958. Both groups sponsor many programs and events for goldens and their owners.

You can find out about local chapters of these clubs at their Web sites. Your local chapter will have information about good breeders of golden retrievers in your area.

The GRCA Web site also maintains a list of rescue organizations across the United States. If you’re thinking of getting a rescue dog, this is a good place to start.

The American Kennel Club also sponsors programs and events for all recognized dog breeds, including golden retrievers.

How Do Goldens Help Blind People and Deaf People?

People who are blind can have a hard time moving from place to place. They cannot see people, bicycles, cars, or traffic signals, such as walk/don’t walk signs. Specially trained dogs called dog guides, or seeing eye dogs, can do some of the seeing for blind people. This helps the blind get around for their daily activities. You can identify a guide dog by its special harness attached to a U-shaped handle.

When people started training and using dogs as guide dogs for the blind—about 80 years ago—they used mainly German shepherds. Today, most of the guide dogs are golden retrievers or Labrador retrievers (a breed closely related to the golden), or a mix of the two breeds.

Some golden retrievers work as dog guides for people who are hearing impaired. These hearing dogs, or hearing ear dogs, listen for such noises as alarms. When such a noise sounds, a hearing dog gets its owner’s attention right away.

The golden retrieverThe golden retriever has a dense coat with feathering on the legs and tail.
Gordon Setter,

a Scottish breed noted for its intelligence, loyalty, and outstanding hunting abilities. It has a muscular build with low-set, folded ears and a long, feathered tail. The soft, shiny coat is black with chestnut or mahogany markings. The dog is wary of strangers and protective of its owners. Ideal height: males, 24 to 27 inches (61.0 to 68.6 cm); females, 23 to 26 inches (58.4 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 55 to 80 pounds (24.9 to 36.3 kg); females, 45 to 70 pounds (20.4 to 31.8 kg).

The Gordon setterThe Gordon setter has a muscular build with low-set, folded ears and a feathered tail.
Irish Setter,

a mahogany or chestnut-red dog with feathering on the ears, legs, and tail. It is popular as a show dog and bird dog. The Irish setter has a long body; low, folded ears; and a long, tapering tail. It is an energetic, excitable dog and can be difficult to train. Ideal height: males, 26 to 28 inches (66.0 to 71.1 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 70 pounds (31.8 kg); females, 60 pounds (27.2 kg).

Irish Water Spaniel,

an ancient breed and the tallest spaniel. It has a curly, water-repellent coat; a rat tail; and long, low-set ears. The head has a loosely curled topknot. The coat is a solid liver color. The Irish water spaniel makes a good retriever and watchdog, but is a one-person dog. Ideal height: males, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm); females, 21 to 23 inches (53.3 to 58.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 55 to 65 pounds (24.9 to 29.5 kg); females, 45 to 58 pounds (20.4 to 26.3 kg).

The Irish water spanielThe Irish water spaniel has a curly, water-repellent coat and a curled topknot on its head.
Labrador Retriever,

the most popular retriever. It has a wide head, low-set ears, and an otter tail. The short, dense coat is black, yellow, or chocolate. The Labrador retriever makes an excellent family dog and a reliable guide dog for the blind. Ideal height: males, 22.5 to 24.5 inches (57.2 to 62.2 cm); females, 21.5 to 23.5 inches (54.6 to 59.7 cm). Ideal weight: males, 65 to 75 pounds (29.5 to 34.0 kg); females, 55 to 70 pounds (24.9 to 31.8 kg).

The Labrador retrieverThe Labrador retriever has a short, dense coat that is black, yellow, or chocolate.

What Is a Labrador Retriever?

The ancestors of Labrador retrievers were from Europe, but the breed assumed its present form on the island of Newfoundland, off the coast of Labrador in eastern Canada.

Labs are usually intelligent, loyal, good-natured, and loving. Because of these qualities, Labs have often been used as guide dogs for the blind and as helpers to other disabled people.

Labs are easier to groom than many other sporting dogs because they have short hair.

Pointer,

a muscular dog of European ancestry. It has a long muzzle, hanging ears, and a tapering tail. The short, dense coat is solid liver, lemon, black, or orange, or white with liver, lemon, black, or orange spots. While mainly a field dog, the pointer also makes a good family pet. Ideal height: males, 25 to 28 inches (63.5 to 71.1 cm); females, 23 to 26 inches (58.4 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 55 to 75 pounds (24.9 to 34.0 kg); females, 45 to 65 pounds (20.4 to 29.5 kg).

Sussex Spaniel,

a short, muscular dog with a distinclive golden-liver coat. It has large, hanging ears and drooping lips; the tail is docked. It is slower in the field than other spaniel breeds. Typical height: males, 16 inches (40.6 cm); females, 15 inches (38.1 cm). Typical weight: 35 to 45 pounds (15.9 to 20.4 kg).

Vizsla,

a medium-sized pointer of Hungarian origin. The short, dense coat is golden rust in color. The dog has a muscular body and low-set, silky ears; the tail is docked. It is primarily used in hunting rabbits and waterfowl. Ideal height: males, 22 to 24 inches (55.9 to 61.0 cm); females, 21 to 23 inches (53.3 to 58.4 cm). Typical weight: 55 to 60 pounds (24.9 to 27.2 kg).

Weimaraner,

a hardy, all-purpose pointer of German origin. It has a muscular build with high-set, hanging ears. The tail is docked. The smooth, sleek coat varies from silver gray to dark gray. The eyes are blue-gray or amber. The Weimaraner is fearless and stubborn, and requires obedience training. Ideal height: males, 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.6 cm); females, 23 to 25 inches (58.4 to 63.5 cm). Typical weight: males, 85 pounds (38.6 kg); females, 70 pounds (31.8 kg).

The weimaranerThe weimaraner has a muscular build, a docked tail, and bright eyes.
Welsh Springer Spaniel,

an ancient breed. It has a square muzzle and hanging ears; the tail is docked. The thick, silky coat is white and dark red with dark freckles on the legs and nose. The ears, chest, legs, and stomach are feathered. The Welsh springer spaniel makes a good hunting dog and family pet. Typical height: males, 17 inches (43.2 cm); females, 16.5 inches (41.9 cm). Typical weight: males, 45 pounds (20.4 kg); females, 38 pounds (17.2 kg).

Wirehaired Pointing Griffon,

a shaggy dog used primarily as a pointer and retriever. It has a muscular build and high-set, hanging ears; the tail is docked. The wirehaired coat is solid chestnut or steel-gray, gray-white, or dirty white, with chestnut markings. The hair on the face forms bushy eyebrows, a beard and a mustache. The wirehaired pointing griffon is an active dog, requiring vigorous daily exercise. Ideal height: males, 21.5 to 23.5 inches (54.6 to 59.7 cm); females, 19.5 to 21.5 inches (49.5 to 54.6 cm). Typical weight: males, 60 pounds (27.2 kg); females, 55 pounds (24.9 kg).

Terriers

Terriers are a group of medium-sized dogs, chiefly of British origin. In earlier days they were used in hunting foxes and other small animals. The name comes from the Latin terra, meaning earth. Terriers go to ground—that is, they dig animals out of their holes or burrows. They have powerful jaws and strong teeth.

Terriers are divided into two groups: short-legged terriers and long-legged terriers. Short-legged terriers, such as the Cairn terrier, were originally bred to work in rocky dens with limited headroom. They have broad chests, turned-out forefeet, and prick or upright ears. Long-legged terriers, such as the Airedale terrier, were bred to dig animals out of holes in the soil. They have narrow chests, straight legs, and button ears.

Terriers are noted for their acute hearing and good eyesight, enthusiasm, courage, and determination. Most breeds are kept as house pets and make excellent watchdogs.

TerriersTerriers display their variations in coat and stature.
Airedale Terrier,

the largest terrier breed. It has long legs and button ears that fold over; the tail is docked. The dense, wirehaired coat is black and tan. The Airedale terrier was originally bred to hunt small game and has been used in police work. It is an active dog, requiring vigorous daily exercise. Typical height: 22 to 23 inches (55.8 to 58.4 cm). Typical weight: 45 to 60 pounds (20.6 to 27.2 kg).

American Staffordshire Terrier,

a fighting breed derived from a cross between the bulldog and bull terrier. It is a muscular dog with short legs, a short, tapering tail, and either prick ears or half-rose ears The short, stiff coat may be any color but white. The dog is very protective of its master. Ideal height: males, 18 to 19 inches (45.7 to 48.3 cm); females, 17 to 18 inches (43.2 to 45.7 cm). Typical weight: males, 50 pounds (22.7 kg); females, 45 pounds (20.4 kg).

The American Staffordshire terrierThe American Staffordshire terrier is a powerful dog with short legs and tail and a dark muzzle.
Australian Terrier,

a small terrier originally bred to guard mines and tend sheep. It has short legs and erect, triangular ears; the tail is docked. The short, harsh double coat is either blue-black or silver-blue with tan markings on the head and legs. There is a topknot of hair on the head. The Australian terrier makes an affectionate companion and a good hunting dog. Typical height: 10 inches (25.4 cm). Typical weight: 12 to 14 pounds (5.4 to 6.4 kg).

Bedlington Terrier,

a dog originally bred to hunt ferrets and foxes. It has a lamblike appearance, with a pear-shaped head, thick topknot, and curly longhaired coat. The ears hang down and have a tassel of hair at the tip. The legs are long and muscular. The coat is blue, liver, or sandy, often combined with tan. The Bedlington terrier likes to run and it makes a loyal companion. Ideal height: males, 16 to 17.5 inches (40.6 to 44.5 cm); females, 15 to 16.5 inches (38.1 to 41.9 cm). Ideal weight: 17 to 23 pounds (7.7 to 10.4 kg).

Border Terrier,

a short-legged breed from the Cheviot Hills, on the border between Scotland and England. It has an otter-like head and V-shaped drop ears. The tapering tail is carried erect. The short, wire-haired coat is red, grizzle and tan, blue and tan, or wheaten. Tireless and hardworking, the border terrier is an ideal hunting dog. Typical height: males, 13 inches (33.0 cm); females, 12 inches (30.5 cm), Ideal weight: males, 13 to 15.5 pounds (5.9 to 7.0 kg); females, 11.5 to 14 pounds (5.2 to 6.4 kg).

The border terrierThe border terrier has an otter-like head, drop ears, and an erect tail.
Bull Terrier,

a breed originally developed for dogfighting. It has short, muscular legs, an egg-shaped head, erect ears, and close-set eyes. The short tail is carried horizontally. Two color varieties are recognized by the AKC: (1) white; and (2) colored (usually red with brindle markings). The bull terrier is aggressive and does not get along well with other pets. Typical height: males, 22 inches (55.9 cm); females, 21 inches (53.3 cm). Typical weight: 50 to 60 pounds (22.7 to 27.2 kg).

The bull terrierThe bull terrier has short, muscular legs, erect ears, and close-set eyes.
Cairn Terrier,

a small, shaggy terrier from Scotland. It has short legs and erect, triangular ears. The coat is water-resistant and is any color but white. The Cairn terrier was originally bred to hunt small game. It makes a good family pet. Ideal height: males, 10 inches (25.4 cm); females, 9.5 inches (24.1 cm). Ideal weight: males, 14 pounds (6.4 kg); females, 13 pounds (5.9 kg).

The cairn terrierThe cairn terrier is a small, shaggy terrier from Scotland.
Dandie Dinmont Terrier,

a dog originally bred to hunt otters. It is named for a character in a Sir Walter Scott novel. It has a distinctive topknot, hanging ears with tassels at the tips, short legs, and a short tail that curls up at the tip. The crisp coat is pepperor mustard-colored. The Dandie Dinmont terrier is stubborn and needs training. Ideal height: 8 to 11 inches (20.3 to 27.9 cm). Ideal weight: 18 to 24 pounds (8.2 to 10.9 kg).

Irish Terrier,

a wirehaired terrier. It has long legs and button ears; the tail is docked. The coat is bright red to wheaten with a small white patch on the chest. The Irish terrier, once popular as a farm dog, makes a good companion and watchdog. Ideal height: 18 inches (45.7 cm). Ideal weight: males, 27 pounds (12.2 kg); females, 25 pounds (11.3 kg).

Kerry Blue Terrier,

an Irish terrier with a distinctive silky, grayish-blue coat. It has long, muscular legs; an angular head; button ears; and prominent whiskers. The tail is docked and is held erect. The Kerry blue terrier is energetic and makes a good family pet but it needs firm discipline. Ideal height: males, 18 to 19.5 inches (45.7 to 49.5 cm); females, 17.5 to 19 Inches (44.5 to 48.3 cm). Typical weight: 33 to 40 pounds (15.0 to 18.1 kg).

The Kerry blue terrierThe Kerry blue terrier has a distinctive silky, curly gray-blue coat.
Lakeland Terrier,

a small, squarely built terrier used to hunt foxes. It has long legs, a rectangular head, and button ears; the tail is docked. The wirehaired coat is blue, black, liver, red, wheaten, black and tan, blue and tan, grizzle and tan, or red grizzle. The breed is uncommon in the United States. Ideal height: males, 14 to 15 inches (35.6 to 38.1 cm); females, 13 to 14 inches (33.0 to 35.6 cm). Ideal wight: to 17 pounds (7.7 kg).

Manchester Terrier,

an English breed used for hunting rats and rabbits. It has long, thin legs; erect ears or button ears; and a whiplike tail. The short, sleek coat is black or mahogany black, with tan markings above the eyes, on the muzzle, and on the lower legs. The Manchester terrier makes a good house dog and companion. Typical height: males, 16 inches (40.6 cm); females, 15 inches (38.1 cm). Ideal weight: 12 to 22 pounds (5.4 to 10.0 kg).

The Manchester terrierThe Manchester terrier has thin legs, a sleek coat, and a whip-like tail.
Miniature Bull Terrier,

a small dog noted for remarkable courage. It is muscular, active, and aggressive, yet good-tempered and easy to train. It has an egg-shaped head, erect ears, and close-set eyes. The short tail is carried horizontally. There are two color varieties, white and colored (any color). Ideal height: 10 to 14 inches (25.4 to 35.6 cm). Typical weight: 10 to 40 pounds (4.5 to 18.1 kg).

Miniature Schnauzer,

a stocky breed from Germany. It has a wirehaired double coat with thick whiskers and bushy eyebrows. The coat is black, black and silver, or salt-and-pepper, with tan markings. The ears are cropped and the tail is docked. The miniature schnauzer makes a good pet and watchdog. Ideal height: 12 to 14 inches (30.5 to 35.6 cm). Typical weight: males, 15 pounds (6.8 kg); females, 14 pounds (6.4 kg).

Norfolk Terrier,

a hardy terrier bred for fox hunting. It has a compact body, short legs, and drop ears; the tail is docked. The wirehaired double coat is red, wheaten, black and tan, or grizzle. The Norfolk terrier is affectionate and obedient. Ideal height: 9 to 10 inches (22.9 to 25.4 cm). Ideal weight: 11 to 12 pounds (5.0 to 5.4 kg).

Norwich Terrier,

a short-legged dog originally bred to hunt foxes and rats. It resembles the Norfolk terrier but has prick ears. The wirehaired double coat is red, wheaten, black and tan, or grizzle. The Norwich terrier makes a good companion. Ideal height: to 10 inches (25.4 cm). Ideal weight: to 12 pounds (5.4 kg).

Scottish Terrier, or Scottie,

a compact, short-legged breed. It has erect, triangular ears and an erect tail. The wirehaired coat is brindle, black, steel- or iron-gray, wheaten, or sandy. The dog has prominent eyebrows and whiskers, and an alert expression. It can be stubborn and independent. Ideal height: 10 inches (25.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 19 to 22 pounds (8.6 to 10.0 kg); females, 18 to 21 pounds (8.2 to 9.5 kg).

The Scottish terrierThe Scottish terrier has prominent eyebrows and whiskers, and an alert expression.
Sealyham Terrier,

a short-legged dog originally bred to hunt badgers, otters, and foxes. It has a rectangular head and button ears, and the tail is docked. The wirehaired coat is white with lemon, tan, or badger markings on the head and chest. There are shaggy eyebrows and whiskers. The dog makes a lively family pet. Ideal height: 10.5 inches (26.7 cm). Typical weight: 23 to 24 pounds (10.4 to 11.3 kg).

Skye Terrier,

a breed from the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It is noted for its long coat, which covers its eyes and ears and reaches the ground. The hair is often parted and tied back to keep it out of the eyes. The coat is blue, gray, silver-platinum, fawn, or cream, with black on the ears, muzzle, and tip of the tail. The dog has short legs, erect ears or drop ears, and a long tail. The Skye terrier makes a good companion and watchdog. Ideal height: males, 10 inches (25.4 cm); females, 9.5 inches (24.1 cm). Typical weight: males, 25 pounds (11.4 kg); females, 23 pounds (10.5 kg).

The Skye terrierThe Skye terrier has a long coat which covers its eyes and ears and reaches the ground.
Smooth Fox Terrier,

a small, energetic terrier descended from the bull terrier, greyhound, and beagle. The dog was originally bred to drive foxes from their holes. It has long legs, button ears, and a stiff, erect tail. The flat, dense coat is white with black or tan markings on the head, back, and tail. The smooth fox terrier makes an active family pet. Ideal height: to 15.5 inches (39.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 17 to 19 pounds (7.7 to 8.6 kg); females, 15 to 17 pounds (6.8 to 7.7 kg).

The smooth fox terrierThe smooth fox terrier has long legs, button ears, and an erect tail.
Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier,

a medium-sized dog from Ireland named for its soft, wavy coat. The puppies have a red-wheaten coat that lightens to a wheaten color by the age of two. The soft-coated wheaten terrier has long legs and button ears; the tail is docked. It makes an alert watchdog and is good with children. Ideal height: males, 18 to 19 inches (45.7 to 48.3 cm); females, 17 to 18 inches (43.2 to 45.7 cm). Ideal weight: males, 35 to 40 pounds (15.9 to 18.1 kg); females, 30 to 35 pounds (13.6 to 15.9kg).

Staffordshire Bull Terrier,

a short-legged breed developed from the bulldog and Manchester terrier for dogfighting. It has a stocky, muscular build; a wedge-shaped head; and rose ears or half-prick ears. The smooth coat is red, fawn, white, black, brindle, or blue, with white markings. The Staffordshire bull terrier is aggressive and makes a good watchdog. Ideal height: 14 to 16 inches (35.6 to 40.6 cm). Ideal weight: males, 28 to 38 pounds (12.7 to 17.2 kg); females, 24 to 34 pounds (10.9 to 15.4 kg).

Welsh Terrier,

an ancient breed from Wales. It has long legs, a rectangular head and button ears. The tail is docked and is held erect. The wirehaired coat is black or grizzle on the back, tail, neck, and ears. The legs, chest, and face are reddish-tan. The Welsh terrier is a sensitive, friendly dog and makes a good companion. Ideal height: 15 to 15.5 inches (38.1 to 39.4 cm). Typical weight: 20 pounds (9.1 kg).

West Highland White Terrier,

an all-white terrier from Scotland. It has a broad head; short, erect ears; short legs; an erect tail; and a harsh, double coat. The dog is alert, playful, and protective. Ideal height: males, 11 inches (27.9 cm); females, 10 inches (25.4 cm). Typical weight: males, 19 pounds (8.6 kg); females, 17 pounds (7.7 kg).

The West Highland white terrierThe West Highland white terrier has a broad head, short legs and a harsh, double coat.
Wire Fox Terrier,

a breed related to the smooth fox terrier but distinguished by its wirehaired coat. It has long legs, a rectangular head and button ears; the tail is docked. The double coat is white with black and tan markings or tan with black markings. The wire fox terrier is an active dog and is playful with children. Ideal height: to 15.5 inches (39.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 17 to 19 pounds (7.7 to 8.6 kg); females, 15 to 17 pounds (6.8 to 7.7 kg).

Toy Dogs

Toy dogs are small dogs kept chiefly as house pets and companions. They were first popularized by royalty. Most toy dogs have short, pushed-in muzzles, long coats, and high-set tails. Toy dogs are alert and active. Because of their size, they are well suited to apartment living.

Affenpinscher,

a breed resembling a terrier. Its large eyes, bushy eyebrows, and prominent tuft of hair on the chin give it a monkeylike expression. (Affe is the German word for monkey.) The ears are cropped and the tail is docked. The wirehaired coat is solid black or black with red, gray, or tan. The affenpinscher is a fun-loving dog and makes a loyal companion. Ideal height: to 10.5 inches (26.0 cm). Typical weight: 7 to 8 pounds (3.2 to 3.6 kg).

The affenpinscherThe affenpinscher has bushy eyebrows and a prominent tuft of hair on the chin.
Brussels Griffon,

a short, stocky dog originally bred to kill rats and mice in stables. It has a short, upturned face and short, erect ears. The tail is docked. The coat is either smooth or rough, and is reddish-brown, solid black, or reddish-brown and black. The dog is intelligent, active, and independent. Typical height: 8 inches (20.3 cm). Ideal weight: to 12 pounds (5.4 kg).

Chihuahua,

the smallest of all breeds. It is an ancient Mexican breed, dating back to the Toltec and Aztec civilizations. The dog has a domed skull, large prick ears, and a sickle tail. Two varieties of coat are recognized by the AKC: (1) smooth, with a ruff around the neck; and (2) long, with a fringe of hair on the ears, and feathering on the legs and tail. The coat may be any color. The Chihuahua makes an alert, affectionate house dog. Typical height: 5 inches (12.7 cm). Ideal weight: to 6 pounds (2.7 kg).

The ChihuahuaThe Chihuahua is the smallest breed.
Chinese Crested,

an unusual breed with two distinct varieties, the Hairless and the Powderpuff. The Hairless, despite its name, has hair on the head, tail, and feet; the Powderpuff is completely covered with hair. Both varieties may be born in the same litter. The Chinese Crested is fine-boned, elegant, and graceful. It is playful and entertaining, and is a loving companion. Ideal height: 11 to 13 inches (27.9 to 33.0 cm). Ideal weight: 5 to 10 pounds (2.3 to 4.5 kg).

English Toy Spaniel,

a breed popularized by English royalty as a lap dog. It has a domed head, an upturned nose, and long, hanging ears. The tail is docked. The coat is silky and wavy. Two varieties of coat color are recognized by the AKC: (1) solid—King Charles (black and tan) or Ruby (chestnut red); and (2) mixed or broken—Blenheim (chestnut red and white, or ruby red and white) or Prince Charles (black, white, and tan). The English toy spaniel is an active, fun-loving dog. Typical height: males, 10 inches (25.4 cm); females, 9 inches (22.9 cm). Ideal weight: 9 to 12 pounds (4.1 to 5.4 kg).

Italian Greyhound,

a miniature greyhound developed during the Renaissance. It has a long, slender head; small, folded ears; a curved spine; and a long, curved tail. The coat is short and glossy, and may be any color. The dog is affectionate and playful. Ideal height: 13 to 15 inches (33.0 to 38.1 cm). Typical weight: 8 to 15 pounds (3.6 to 6.8 kg).

Japanese Chin,

an old breed originally from China, but popularized in Japan. It has hanging, V-shaped cars and a short muzzle. The fluffy tail is carried over the back and to one side. The straight, silky coat is feathered on the ears, tail, and thighs. It is particolored black and white or white and red. (The term “red” includes such colors as sable, lemon, orange, and brindle.) The Japanese chin has an aristocratic appearance and makes an affectionate companion. Typical height: 9 inches (22.9 cm). Weight: Two classes are recognized by the AKC—under 7 pounds (3.2 kg) and over 7 pounds.

Maltese,

an ancient breed from the island of Malta. It has feathered, hanging ears and a plumed tail carried over the back. The long, silky hair is solid white, occasionally with tan or lemon on the ears. The Maltese is an alert, active dog. Typical height: 5 inches (12.7 cm). Ideal weight: to 7 pounds (3.2 kg).

Mexican Hairless

See Xoloitzcuintli, in this list.

Miniature Pinscher,

a miniature Doberman pinscher. It has a compact, muscular body and erect ears; the tail is docked. The smooth, shiny coat is solid red, black with rust or tan markings, or chocolate with rust markings. The miniature pinscher makes a good watchdog. Ideal height: 10 to 12.5 inches (25.4 to 31.8 cm). Typical weight: males, 10 pounds (4.5 kg); females, 9 pounds (4.1 kg).

The miniature pinscherThe miniature pinscher has a compact, muscular body and erect ears.
Papillon,

a breed named for its large, fringed ears resembling a butterfly's wings. (Papillon means “butterfly” in French.) The dog has a pointed muzzle and a plumed tail that arches over the back. The long, silky coat is parti-colored, and there are patches of dark colors on the ears and around the eyes. The hair on the hind legs is thick, and forms “breeches.” The papillon makes a friendly, lively pet. Ideal height: 8 to 11 inches (20.3 to 27.9 cm). Typical weight: males, 10 pounds (4.5 kg); females, 8 pounds (3.6 kg).

Pekingese,

an ancient Chinese breed once considered sacred. It has a short, broad face and nose; drooping, heart-shaped ears; and bowed forelegs. The high-set tail curls over the back. The long, thick coat is feathered on the legs, tail, and toes, and forms a lionlike mane around the head. The coat comes in many colors, and there is a black mask on the face. The Pekingese is a hardy breed and can be stubborn. Typical height: males, 9 inches (22.9 cm); females, 8 inches (20.3 cm). Ideal weight: to 14 pounds (6.4 kg).

The PekingeseThe Pekingese has a short, broad face and nose.
Pomeranian,

a small German breed. It has a foxlike face; small, erect ears; and a bushy tail carried low over the back. The long, coarse double coat is feathered on the legs, and forms a ruff around the neck. The coat is sable, black and tan, or any solid color. The Pomeranian is excitable and intelligent, and makes a good watchdog. Typical height: males, 7 inches (17.8 cm); females, 6.5 inches (16.5 cm). Ideal weight: 3 to 7 pounds (1.4 to 3.2 kg).

PomeraniansPomeranians have fox-like faces, bushy tails, and a double coat of hair.
Pug,

an ancient breed originally from Asia and later popularized in the Netherlands. It is named for its pushed-in, or pug, nose. The dog has rose ears or button ears and the tail curls tightly over the hip. The skin on the head, particularly the forehead, is deeply wrinkled. The soft, fine coat is either solid black, or silver or apricot fawn with a black mask, black ears, and a black trace. The pug is playful and makes a good companion. Typical height: 10 to 11 inches (25.4 to 27.9 cm). Ideal weight: 14 to 18; pounds (6.4 to 8.2 kg).

The pugThe pug is named for its pushed-in, or pug, nose.
Shih Tzu,

an ancient breed of China originally kept exclusively by royalty. It has short legs; long, hanging ears; a short muzzle; and a prominent mustache. The plumed tail is carried over the back. The coat is long and dense, and may be any color. The hair on top of the head is usually tied up to keep it out of the eyes. The Shih Tzu is a lively, hardy dog and is good with children. Ideal height: 8 to 11 inches (20.3 to 27.9 cm). Ideal weight: 9 to 18 pounds (4.1 to 8.2 kg).

Silky Terrier,

an Australian shepherd dog originally used to exterminate rats on farms. It is covered by long, silky hair that is blue and tan. The dog is long and low-set, and has erect, V-shaped ears. The tail is docked and is held erect. The silky terrier is spirited and makes a good watchdog. Ideal height: 9 to 10 inches (22.9 to 25.4 cm). Ideal weight: 8 to 10 pounds (3.6 to 4.5 kg).

Toy Manchester Terrier,

a smaller version of the Manchester terrier. It has a narrow, wedge-shaped head; erect ears; and a tapering, whiplike tail. The short, thick coat is black with mahogany and tan markings above the eyes, on the face and chest, under the tail, and on the lower legs. The toy Manchester terrier is active and alert, and makes a good watchdog. Typical height: 6 to 7 inches (15.2 to 17.8 cm). Weight: Two classes are recognized by the AKC—under 7 pounds (3.2 kg) and 7 to 12 pounds (3.2 to 5.4 kg).

Toy Poodle,

a tiny breed first popularized by French and English royalty in the 1700's. It has a long, slender head and hanging, feathered ears. The tail is docked and is high-set. The harsh, dense coat comes in all solid colors. It is professionally clipped in several styles. The toy poodle makes a playful family dog. Ideal height: to 10 inches (25.4 cm). Typical weight: 5 to 7 pounds (2.3 to 3.2 kg).

Xoloitzcuintli,

an unusual dog with no hair on its body. It was bred from the Mexican hairless, a dog that is thought to have been brought to Mexico by the Aztecs when they came from Asia. The Xoloitzcuintli resembles a chihuahua. The skin may be any dog color and is hot to the touch. This dog can be temperamental. Typical height: 12 to 16 inches (30.5 to 40.6 cm). Typical weight: 4 to 7 pounds (1.8 to 3.2 kg). This breed is not recognized by the AKC but has its own association, the Xoloitzcuintli Club of America.

Yorkshire Terrier,

a long-haired breed from England. The long, silky coat reaches the ground along the back and sides. It is parted and tied back to keep it out of the eyes and face. The dog has small, V-shaped ears, and the tail is docked. The puppies are born with a black coat and tan markings on the head, chest, and feet; the coat turns a steel-blue color by the age of two. The Yorkshire terrier is affectionate and gets along with other pets. Typical height: 6 to 7 inches (15.2 to 17.8 cm). Ideal weight: to 7 pounds (3.2 kg).

Working Dogs

Working dogs are large, muscular dogs that pull carts and sleds, perform rescue work, and act as guide dogs for the blind. Some working dogs are trained in police work to use their sense of smell to locate contraband, such as drugs and explosives, at airports; they are also used for patrol work. Some breeds make dependable watchdogs, warning of the approach of strangers by barking. Other breeds are used as guard dogs to protect homes and other types of property. Guard dogs are typically aggressive and are trained to attack intruders. Although there is no one typical breed for this group, it includes many of the northern-and mastiff-type dogs.

The northern types, or Spitz-type dogs, have wolflike faces; tight-lipped muzzles; erect ears; muscular bodies; double coats; and curled or plumed tails. A typical breed is the Alaskan Malamute.

Mastiff-type dogs are powerful, massive animals with square, deep muzzles, which are typically dark and wrinkled; wide-set legs, and short, smooth coats. A typical breed is the bullmastiff.

Akita,

a northern-type dog native to Japan. It is a large, heavy-boned breed with a thick double coat that is typically white, brindle, and brown. The Akita has erect, triangular ears and deep-set eyes. The tail curls over the back. Akita were originally bred to hunt bears and deer. They are good house pets and capable guard dogs. Ideal height: males, 26 to 28 inches (66.0 to 71.1 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 85 to 100 pounds (38.6 to 45.4 kg); females, 75 to 85 pounds (34.0 to 38.6 kg).

Alaskan Malamute,

a northern-type dog originally bred to pull sleds by the Malamutes, a tribe of American Indians in Alaska. The dog has erect, wedge-shaped ears; almond-shaped eyes; and a plumed tail that curls over the back. The double coat is light gray to black with white markings on the legs, feet, and underparts. Unusual markings on the face form a cap or mask. The Alaskan Malamute is good with children. Ideal height: males, 25 inches (63.5 cm); females, 23 inches (58.4 cm). Ideal weight: males, 85 pounds (38.6 kg); females, 75 pounds (34.0 kg).

The Alaskan malamuteThe Alaskan malamute was originally bred to pull sleds.
American Eskimo,

a northern sled dog that resembles a Samoyed. It is among the oldest dog breeds, descended from a breed known to have existed in the New Stone Age. The dog has a long, white coat, a square, muscular body, a plumed tail, a wedge-shaped head, and prick ears. The neck is covered by a lionlike mane. This dog is intelligent, has a gentle temperament, and is an obedient pet. Though playful with children, it is an excellent guard dog, barking aggressively to announce intruders. Typical height: Two sizes are recognized—miniature, 12 up to 16 inches (30.5 to 38.1 cm) for males; and standard, 16 to 20 inches (40.6 to 50.8 cm) for males. Females are slightly smaller in both cases. Typical weight: miniature male, 12 to 20 pounds (5.4 to 9.1 kg); standard male, 20 to 35 pounds (9.1 to 15.9 kg); miniature female, 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg); standard female, 18 to 32 pounds (8.2 to 14.5 kg). This breed is recognized by the UKC but not by the AKC.

Bernese Mountain Dog,

an ancient draft dog of Bern, Switzerland, originally bred to pull carts through the mountains. It has V-shaped, hanging ears and a thick tail. The long, silky hair is black with russet markings on the legs, cheeks, and chest, and over the eyes. White markings are found on the feet and chest, and at the tip of the tail. The dog is independent and needs obedience training. Ideal height: males, 24.5 to 27.5 inches (62.2 to 69.9 cm); females, 22.5 to 25.5 inches (57.2 to 64.8 cm). Typical weight: males, 80 to 105 pounds (36.3 to 47.6 kg); females, 75 to 90 pounds (34.0 to 40.8 kg).

Boxer,

a muscular, mastiff-type breed from Germany. It is popular in the United States as a pet and watchdog, and is also used for police work. The boxer was originally bred for bullbaiting and dog-fighting. It is named for the humanlike way it jabs with its forepaws when fighting. The ears are cropped and held erect, and the tail is docked. The short coat is fawn or brindle with white markings. Ideal height: males, 22.5 to 25 inches (57.2 to 63.5 cm); females, 21 to 23.5 inches (53.3 to 59.7 cm). Typical weight: males, 70 pounds (31.8 kg); females, 60 pounds (27.2 kg).

The boxerThe boxer is a muscular, mastiff-type breed from Germany.
Bullmastiff,

a powerfully built watchdog, originally; bred to guard English country estates against poachers. It has V-shaped, hanging ears; a tapering tail; and a wrinkled muzzle. The short, dense coat is red, fawn, or brindle. The ears are dark and there is a dark mask on the face. The bullmastiff can be independent and stubborn, and requires obedience training. Ideal height: males, 25 to 27 inches (63.5 to 68.6 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Ideal weight: males, 110 to 130 pounds (49.9 to 59.0 kg); females, 100 to 120 pounds (45.4 to 54.4 kg).

Doberman Pinscher,

a German dog named for Louis Dobermann, the developer of the breed. It is an intelligent, muscular dog with a clean-cut appearance. It has been used in military work and police work, and as a guide dog for the blind. The Doberman pinscher has a wedge-shaped head, almond-shaped eyes, and tight lips. The ears are cropped and the tail is docked. The short, fine coat is black, red, blue, or brown with rust-colored markings on the face, legs, and feet. Ideal height: males, 26 to 28 inches (66.0 to 71.1 cm); females, 24 to 26 inches (61.0 to 66.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 70 to 75 pounds (31.8 to 34.0 kg); females, 60 to 65 pounds (27.2 to 29.5 kg).

The Doberman pinscherThe Doberman pinscher is a large, intelligent dog with a muscular body.
Giant Schnauzer,

a German dog originally bred to herd cattle. It has a wedge-shaped muzzle. The ears are cropped and the tail is docked. The wirehaired double coat is solid black or pepper-and-salt. The hair forms eyebrows and a beard on the face. The dog is spirited, alert, and playful. Ideal height: males, 25.5 to 27.5 inches (64.8 to 69.9 cm); females, 23.5 to 25.5 inches (59.7 to 64.8 cm). Typical weight: 65 to 95 pounds (29.5 to 43.1 kg).

Great Dane,

a huge mastiff-type dog, originally bred to hunt wild boars. It has a long muzzle; ears that fold over or are cropped; and a long, thin tail. The short coat is brindle, fawn, blue, black, or harlequin. Great Danes make good pets and good watchdogs, their size alone being enough to scare away intruders. If provoked, they may attack. Ideal height: males, at least 30 inches (76.2 cm); females, at least 28 inches (71.1 cm). Typical weight: males, 135 to 150 pounds (61.2 to 68.0 kg); females, 120 to 135 pounds (54.4 to 61.2 kg).

The Great DaneThe Great Dane is a huge mastiff-type dog with a long muzzle and short coat.
Great Pyrenees,

an ancient French breed developed to guard sheep and pull sleds in mountainous regions. It is a northern-type breed with drop ears, a bushy tail, and a large, wedge-shaped head. The thick, double coat is solid white or white with badger, gray, or tan markings. The Great Pyrenees makes a good companion and good family dog. Ideal height: males, 27 to 32 inches (68.6 to 81.3 cm); females, 25 to 29 inches (63.5 to 73.7 cm). Ideal weight: males, 100 to 125 pounds (45.4 to 56.7 kg); females, 90 to 115 pounds (40.8 to 52.2 kg).

The Great PyreneesThe Great Pyrenees has a thick double coat.
Komondor,

a large white dog of Hungarian origin originally bred to guard sheep. The dog has hanging, V-shaped ears and a long tail. The coat is composed of long, tassel-like cords that cover the eyes and face, and hang down along the back, legs, and tail. The komondor makes a good watchdog. Ideal height: males, at least 25.5 inches (64.8 cm); females, at least 23.5 inches (59.7 cm). Typical weight: males, 95 pounds (43.1 kg); females, 80 pounds (36.3 kg).

Kuvasz,

a solid white breed with a thick, double coat. It is originally from Tibet, and was popularized in Hungary in the 15th century. The dog has almond-shaped eyes, ears that fold over, and a long tail that hangs down. The kuvasz is active and intelligent. It is good with children and makes a good guard dog. Ideal height: males, 28 to 30 inches (71.1 to 76.2 cm); females, 26 to 28 inches (66.0 to 71.1 cm). Ideal weight: males, 100 to 115 pounds (45.4 to 52.2 kg); females, 70 to 90 pounds (31.8 to 40.8 kg).

Mastiff,

an ancient European and Asian breed popularized in England. The mastiff has a broad head with a short muzzle and ears that fold over. The short, smooth double coat is apricot, silver-fawn, or dark brindle; the ears and muzzle are dark. The mastiff was bred for dogfighting, and is now primarily kept as a watchdog. Ideal height: males, at least 30 inches (76.2 cm); females, at least 27.5 inches (69.9 cm). Typical weight: males, 180 pounds (81.6 kg); females, 170 pounds (77.1 kg).

Newfoundland Dog,

a large water dog with webbed feet and an oily, water-resistant coat. It was originally used to pull carts and carry packs, and to help fishermen with their nets. It is valued for its ability to rescue persons in water. The dog has a massive head; deep-set eyes; small ears that fold over; and a long, bushy tail. It is typically black, but the Landseer strain is white with bronze or black markings. The Newfoundland is intelligent and good with children. Typical height: males, 28 inches (71.1 cm); females, 26 inches (66.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 130 to 150 pounds (59.0 to 68.0 kg); females, 100 to 120 pounds (45.4 to 54.4 kg).

Portuguese Water Dog,

a medium-sized breed that resembles a poodle. This unusual dog was originally bred by Portuguese fishermen to retrieve nets and dive for fish. With its webbed feet and thick, water-repellent coat, it is well-adapted to the water. The dog's ears are heart-shaped and hang down; the tail tapers at the tip and arches over the back when the dog is excited. The wavy or curly coat is black, brown, or grayish-white. It is professionally clipped like that of the poodle. The Portuguese water dog sheds very little and is a good family dog. Ideal height: males, 20 to 23 inches (50.8 to 58.4 cm); females, 17 to 21 inches (43.2 to 53.3 cm). Ideal weight: males, 42 to 60 pounds (19.1 to 27.2 kg); females, 35 to 50 pounds (15.9 to 22.7 kg).

Rottweiler,

a mastiff-type German breed originally used to drive cattle, and now used in police work and as a guard dog. It is a robust dog with a broad head and chest. It has rectangular, hanging ears, and the tail is docked. The short coat is black with rust or mahogany markings on the face, chest, and legs. Ideal height: males, 24 to 27 inches (61.0 to 68.6 cm); females, 22 to 25 inches (55.9 to 63.5 cm). Typical weight: males, 115 pounds (52.2 kg); females, 100 pounds (45.4 kg).

St. Bernard,

a rescue dog bred by monks at a hospice on the Great St. Bernard Pass in the Swiss Alps. St. Bernards are believed to have rescued more than 2,000 persons lost in Alpine storms. They began their rescue work in the 17th century; it was discontinued in the 20th century, with the virtual disappearance of foot travelers. The dog is popularly depicted with a cask of brandy around its neck, but it did not carry such a cask during rescue missions. The St. Bernard is the heaviest breed. It has a large head with drop ears, a short muzzle, and pronounced wrinkles on the forehead. The tail is long and bushy, and turns up at the tip. Two varieties of coat are recognized by the AKC: (1) long-haired, with a ruff around the neck and feathering on the legs and tail; and (2) short-haired, with thick, short hair over the entire body. The coat is red and white or brindle. There is a white blaze on the forehead and a dark mask around the eyes. The St. Bernard makes a good watchdog. Ideal height: males, 27.5 inches (69.9 cm); females, 25.5 inches (64.8 cm). Typical weight: males, 165 pounds (74.8 kg); females, 145 pounds (65.8 kg).

Samoyed,

a northern-type breed with a pure white or cream-colored coat. It was bred to herd reindeer and pull sleds. During ancient times, the breed was taken to northern Siberia from Iran by the nomadic Samoyed people. The double coat forms a ruff around the neck and shoulders, and the bushy tail curls over the back. The dog has a wedge-shaped head and erect, triangular ears. The Samoyed's lips curl up at the corners, giving it a smiling expression. It makes a good companion. Ideal height: males, 21 to 23.5 inches (53.3 to 59.7 cm); females, 19 to 21 inches (48.3 to 53.3 cm). Typical weight: males, 55 to 75 pounds (24.9 to 34.0 kg); females, 40 to 55 pounds (18.1 to 24.9 kg).

The samoyedThe samoyed has a lush white or cream-colored coat.
Siberian Husky,

a northern-type breed native to northeastern Siberia (where it is called the Chuchi).

Standard Schnauzer,

a compact, squarely built dog bred to hunt rats. It has bushy whiskers and eyebrows, and a mustache. The stiff, wirehaired coat is pepper-and-salt or solid black in color. The ears are cropped and the tail is docked. The standard schnauzer makes a good guard dog and pet. Ideal height: males, 18 to 19.5 inches (45.7 to 49.5 cm); females, 17.5 to 18.5 inches (44.5 to 47.0 cm). Typical weight: males, 40 to 50 pounds (18.1 to 22.7 kg); females, 30 to 40 pounds (13.6 to 18.1 kg).