National Audubon Society Field Guide to Birds Eastern Region, 16th edition, revised by John Bull and John Ferrand Jr. (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.: New York, 2007)

The Audubon Society Guide to Attracting Birds: Creating Habitats for Properties Large and Small, 2nd edition, by Stephen W. Kress (Cornell University Press: Ithaca and London, 2006).


Cornell Lab of Ornithology: All About Birds,,

Special thanks to Craig Tufts, chief naturalist with the Natural Wildlife Federation