Back in the Wild West, a horse with a broken leg might have spent its final seconds staring down the barrel of a cowboy's gun. In the old days and today, horses are commonly euthanized after breaking their legs because they have a small chance of successful recovery. Researchers are working hard to try and discover new techniques that will improve an equine's chances in the face of a fracture. For now, an easy fix remains elusive.
It's difficult for a horse's leg to heal due to a combination of factors. Their legs must absorb considerable shock as their powerful bodies gallop at high speeds. Horses engage in a lot of physical activity, and the consequences of this behavior can eventually lead to deteriorated leg bones and increased opportunities to fall. Another thing to consider is how many leg bones horses have. Out of the 205 bones that make up a horse's entire body, 80 of them are located in its legs. The complex system of joints, bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, lubricant, laminate and hooves that contribute to a horse's amazing speed can also be the cause of its downfall. What's more, between 60 to 65 percent of a horse's weight rests on its front legs -- that's why most of its injuries occur here.
Many problems can affect horses' legs, like inflammation, osteoarthritis, joint issues and diseases and of course, broken bones. Recovery is further complicated because horses can't lie down the entire time they recuperate. Horses are programmed to stand a good portion of the time -- including while they sleep. As a prey species, they must be ready to flee as fast as possible, which is why horses stay on their toes (or hooves to be more accurate).
Now that we understand why a horse's legs are so important to its overall health and performance, let's find out what happens when those fragile legs break and if they'll have to stare down the barrel of a shotgun.
Can You Fix a Horse's Broken Leg?
Though horses are still frequently euthanized after breaking a leg, today's procedure is usually accomplished in a more humane manner, like with an intravenous injection of barbiturates, performed by a veterinarian [source: Equine Protection Network]. And it's not just racehorses that sustain leg injuries -- tiny ponies can, too. In addition to kicks and crashes, simple accidents like missteps can cause serious breaks and injuries. Fatigue and the musculoskeletal structure of the horse itself can also be factors. Hard-to-diagnose pre-existing issues such as strained tendons, hairline fractures and microfractures can also contribute to broken bones.
If the worst should happen and a horse breaks its leg, there are a number of factors that help determine if a vet can fix a horse's broken leg and bring the animal back to good health. Some questions an owner with an injured animal needs to ask include:
- How bad is the break? The type of break makes a big difference in determining whether a horse will be able to recover successfully. Horses suffer fractures along a wide spectrum of severity. For instance, having an incomplete fracture involves the bone cracking, but not entirely breaking. This is easier to deal with than a complete fracture, which can result in the bone shattering. Many horses with incomplete fractures can recover. Extensive damage and multiple breaks are closely linked with the possible need for euthanasia. Whether or not the bone fragments protrude through the skin is also a consideration because exposed bone can increase the chance of complications, as we'll discuss below.
- How old is the horse? Younger horses generally stand a better chance at recovering from a broken leg because their bones are still growing. These horses are usually lighter and put less weight on the injury.
- Where is the break? Bones in different areas of the leg have different degrees of success when it comes to healing. As an example, a break in the lower leg can be difficult to mend because horses have fewer blood vessels there. The recovery process can take even longer if one of the horse's larger bones break.
Even if a horse owner decides to give the broken leg a chance to heal, there are a number of things that can go wrong during the recovery process. Learn about some of the hurdles these horses face on the next page.
Complications of Treating a Broken Leg
You might be asking, "Even though it's difficult for a horse's broken leg to heal, why not let nature run its course and decide whether the horse will live or die?" Part of the answer is that several painful conditions can develop during the rehabilitation process. Some people consider euthanizing the animal more humane than letting it live and suffer.
You usually can't save the horse's life just by amputating the broken leg. Horses aren't like dogs, which can usually live a fairly active lifestyle on three legs. Horses are heavier and this weight can cause problems for the other hooves. Unfortunately, few horses can adjust to prostheses. Horses must be in good overall health, be able to adapt to new situations and have an owner that's willing to spend his or her time and money on follow-up prosthesis treatments [source: Willamette Valley Equine].
There are many complications of treating a broken leg. Here are a few examples of some of the issues that can affect recovery:
- Weight: Most horses are heavy animals and their legs and hooves are small in comparison. Favoring a broken leg often forces the healthy legs to bear more than their share of the weight, and this -- along with other factors -- can increase the chances of developing crippling conditions like laminitis and abscesses [source: Moore]. The exact cause of laminitis (an inflammatory disease of the material connecting the hoof to the leg bone, which can lead to their separation) is unknown, but painful laminitis greatly increases the likelihood of euthanasia. Slings that wrap under the abdomen and hold the horse up (taking the weight off the legs) are commonly used for short periods of time, but can't prevent laminitis. Slings can be uncomfortable, cause bedsores and lead to serious gastrointestinal problems. If a sling is used for too long, the healed leg can't bear the horse's weight properly and laminitis could still develop. The weight of a horse must be evenly dispersed on all four legs.
- Movement: Horses are animals that like to move and there's a big risk they might reinjure themselves at some point during the healing process. A horse with a more relaxed disposition, that doesn't mind having its movement restricted, usually has a better chance of properly healing.
- Infection: Open fractures are often complicated by infection, which can be further complicated depending on where the infection is located. Because horses don't have muscles below their hock joints (similar to the human ankle), there aren't many blood vessels to carry antibodies to the site of infection, thus making it difficult to treat. This fact makes giving a horse antibiotics difficult as well. Giving a horse enough antibiotics to be effective can kill the horse's natural intestinal microorganisms and interact with important pain medication.
- Pain: Overwhelming pain is a double-edged sword when it comes to horses. Pain definitely needs to be treated, but you run the risk of overmedicating the horse. If the horse feels totally pain-free, there's a good chance the animal might reinjure its leg. The severity of pain from common post-operative complications, such as laminitis, lies at the root of a decision to euthanize.
- Cost: The long and complicated process of bringing a horse back to good health can be expensive, and there's no guarantee it'll work. Besides being cost-prohibitive, rehabilitation can be hindered by an absence of available facilities that can treat severely injured horses and a general lack of knowledge.
We've taken a closer look at the questions a horse owner faces in the event his or her horse breaks a leg. Go to the next page for links to even more information about horses.
More Great Links
- Adams, Brian. "Nine Greyhounds Suffer Broken Legs at Bay State Dog Tracks in May." The Humane Society of the United States. 6/27/2008. (7/8/2008) http://www.hsus.org/press_and_publications/press_releases/nine_greyhounds_suffer_broken_legs_in_may_062708.html
- "An Enduring Bond." American Museum of Natural History. (7/7/2008) http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/horse/?section=future&page=future_b#
- Engber, Daniel. "Why a Broken Leg Is Bad News for a Horse." Slate. 5/22/2006. (7/3/2008) http://www.slate.com/id/2142159
- "Equine Limb Amputation and Prosthetic Limbs." Willamette Valley Equine. (7/3/2008) http://www.willamettevalleyequine.com/prostheticlimb.cfm
- Gelston, Dan. "Barbaro Legacy Strong a Year Later." 1/27/2008. (7/3/2008) http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=11224
- "Horse Euthanasia Procedures." Equine Protection Network. (7/10/2008) http://www.equineprotectionnetwork.com/rescue/euth.htm
- King, Marcia. "Bad to the Bone." TheHorse.com. 10/1/2006. (7/3/2008) http://www.thehorse.com/PrintArticle.aspx?ID=7704
- "Laminitis." American Association of Equine Practitioners. (7/3/2008) http://www.aaep.org/laminitis.htm
- "Meet Molly." Snopes.com 5/12/2008. (7/3/2008) http://www.snopes.com/photos/animals/molly.asp
- McClure, Robert. "Functional Anatomy of the Horse Foot." University of Missouri Extension Department of Veterinary Medicine. (7/3/2008) http://extension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/ansci/g02740.htm
- Moore, Rustin. "Barbaro Injury Highlights Need for Laminitis Research Funding." RidingWithBarbaro.org. (7/1/2008) http://www.ntra.com/ridingwithbarbaro/RWB_research_need.html
- Oke, Stacey. "Understanding and Preventing Catastrophic Injuries." TheHorse.com. 7/1/2008. (7/3/2008) http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=11998
- Pascoe, Elaine. "How Horses Sleep." Equisearch.com. 9/2000. (7/3/2008) http://equisearch.com/horses_care/health/behavior/eqzzz629/
- "Polytrack." Keeneland. (7/10/2008) http://ww2.keeneland.com/lists/copy/polytrack.aspx
- Rovner, Julie. "Q&A Modern Medicine for Barbaro." NPR. 5/24/2006. (7/3/2008) http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5428731
- Sellnow, Les. "It All Hinges On This." TheHorse.com. 2/1/2006. (7/3/2008) http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=6559
- Smith, Michael David. "Filly Eight Belles Breaks Both Front Legs, Euthanized After Derby. 5/3/2008. AOL Sports (7/3/2008) http://sports.aol.com/fanhouse/2008/05/03/filly-eight-belles-breaks-both- front-legs-euthanized-after-kent/
- Smith, RaeLeann. "Horse Racing: Stop It (or At Least Reform It)." 6/2/2008. (7/7/2008) http://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/2008/06/horse-racing-stop-it-or-at-least-reform-it/
- Stevens, Jennifer. "CDI Announces Memorial Plans for Eight Belles." Churchill Downs. (7/3/2008) http://www.churchilldowns.com/news/archives/cdi-announces-memorial-plans-eight-belles
- Swanson-Massa, Kari. "Broken Leg Greyhounds." (7/7/2008) http://www.midwestgreyhound.org/BrokenLegGreyhounds.pdf
- Tadlock, Annamaria. "Why are horses killed if they break a leg?" The Ultimate Horse Site. (7/1/2008) http://www.ultimatehorsesite.com/info/horsequestions/hq_brokenleghorse.htm
- West, Christy. "Leg Amputation." TheHorse.com. 4/14/2003. (7/3/2008) http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=4243