The bond between humans and dogs dates back at least 12,000 years [source: National Institutes of Health]. Long before our predecessors learned to cultivate crops, they developed a mutually beneficial relationship with wolves, which eventually led to their domestication. Now, dogs live with us as protectors and companions. But should they live exclusively indoors?
"Not in most situations," said Dr. David Sewell, veterinarian and co-owner of Crestview Animal Hospital in Cumming, Ga. "Dogs need to be outside for exercise and for their mental well-being. It makes them happier."
Our dogs enrich our lives and improve our health, so it's natural to want to protect them. But keeping them inside doesn't do that. Disease-causing pathogens can walk into your home on shoes, with groceries or in your latest online shopping order. Dogs that aren't exposed to germs through outdoor play are actually more at risk for getting a disease because they haven't developed antibodies to fight off infections. Keeping canines indoors isn't a guarantee against pests like fleas, ticks and heartworm-carrying mosquitoes, either -- these critters are stopped by doors.
Confinement also creates health problems like obesity and diarrhea [source: Swift]. Most indoor dogs don't get enough exercise, and they don't have the balance of internal microbes required to develop a healthy intestinal structure. Indoor dogs also need more of certain vitamins than doggies that spend a lot of time outside do [source: Kil and Swanson]. And just like caged animals at a zoo, captive dogs can develop behavioral and emotional problems [source: Ohio State University].
So, going outside keeps dogs physically and emotionally fit. They need to run, jump, chase and swim, but neither small nor and very large dogs should jog with you [source: Paige]. Distance-running hurts the joints of small dogs, and large breeds like Great Danes are susceptible to heart problems and fractures in their ankles and feet. Very young, very old, obese or ailing pups need gentle exercise, like swimming [source: Swift]. Even canines that lack the energy for play benefit from the stimuli of outdoor smells, sounds and sights.
If you're home all day, let your dog have short but frequent outdoor breaks. If your pet is alone for hours at a time, longer walks and play sessions help keep his weight under control and improve your loving bond.
That said, some health or environmental factors warrant keeping a dog indoors, at least temporarily. See what they are on the next page.
When should a dog stay indoors?
While dogs need and enjoy outdoor play and exercise, there are some circumstances when their outdoor time should be limited, or when they should stay indoors altogether.
"With certain surgeries," Dr. Sewell said, "dogs should be kept only in a crate. For other surgeries, they should only go out on a leash." Keeping a dog quiet and calm after surgery helps prevent further injury and allows him to concentrate energy on healing, rather than expending it on outdoor play.
Temperature extremes can also limit time outdoors. When the weather is blazing hot or below freezing, keep your pet's play and exercise sessions short but frequent. Dogs with thick coats can overheat in hot summer weather, and those with short coats may have trouble staying warm in cold weather. If you're uncomfortable outside, chances are good that your pup is, too. And just like you, dogs can get sunburned.
There are some environmental dangers that necessitate keeping your dog inside, at least temporarily. These include the presence of:
Heavy traffic around your home is another concern, although this danger is lessened by keeping your dog in a fenced-in area or on a leash. "Dogs in very urban environments or high-rise apartments should only go outside on a leash," Dr. Sewell said. Small breeds, he also noted, should never be outside alone.
While certain conditions warrant keeping your pet indoors, that's not his natural habitat; dogs benefit physically and mentally from exercising, playing and generally being outdoors.
More Great Links
- Kil, D.Y. and K.S. Swanson. "Companion Animals Symposium: Role of microbes in canine and feline health." Journal of Animal Science. Vol. 89, no. 5. Page 1498-1505. May 2011.
- Life Tips. "Are Puppy Vaccines Necessary for Indoor Dogs?" (Aug. 10, 2011) http://puppy.lifetips.com/faq/139108/0/are-puppy-vaccinations-necessary-for-indoor-dogs/index.html
- Life Tips. "Is Heartworm Prevention Necessary?" (Aug. 10, 2011) http://puppy.lifetips.com/faq/138774/0/is-heartworm-prevention-necessary/index.html
- National Institutes of Health. "Can Pets Keep You Healthy?" February 2009. (Aug. 15, 2011) http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2009/February/feature1.htm
- Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine. "Environmental Enrichment." The Indoor Pet Initiative. 2008. (Aug. 10, 2011) http://indoorpet.osu.edu/dogs/environmental_enrichment_dogs/index.cfm
- Paige, Colleen. "A Leg Up On Canine Exercise." Total Health. October/November 2003.
- Pup Life. "Summer Fun: Keeping Your Dog Healthy in the Spring & Summer Months." 2011. (Aug. 9, 2011) http://www.puplife.com/pages/keep-your-dog-healthy-this-spring-summer
- Sewell, David, D.V.M. Co-owner, Crestview Animal Hospital, Cumming, GA. Telephone interview, Aug. 15, 2011.
- Swift, W. Bradford, D.V.M. "Jump Into Fitness." Animals. July/August 1994.
- Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. "Cold Weather Pet Tips." July 22, 2009. (Aug. 10, 2011) http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/cliented/cold.aspx