Extinct Animals

Extinct animals are those species which are no longer living. This group includes prehistoric animals like dinosaurs and ice-age mammals, as well as moden species like the Dodo.

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From Salta in Argentina, Saltasaurus was described from several incomplete skeletons, none of which were found with a skull. This medium-size sauropod was dwarfed by its giant relative Antarctosaurus is also from South America.


Saurolophus ("ridged reptile") was a hadrosaurid. It had a large bony spike pointing back over the top of its head between its eyes. Learn more about the Saurolophus and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


Discovered during an expedition by the American Museum of Natural History, Saurornithoides is an example of a birdlike dinosaur. It looked much like a bird. It was found close to where two other birdlike dinosaurs (Velociraptor and Oviraptor) were also discovered.


Segnosaurus galbinensis, or "slow lizard from Galbin" (a region of the Gobi Desert), was first described by Mongolian paleontologist Altangerel Perle in 1979. It was an unusual saurischian that he classified in its own family, the Segnosauridae.


Shamosaurus is one of the oldest known ankylosaurs. It lived about the same time as the nodosaur Sauropelta. Learn more about the Shamosaurus and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


The paleontological expeditions into the Turpan Basin in 1964-1966 turned up several interesting and unusual dinosaurs, ilncuding the Shanshanosaurus huoyanshanensis. Learn more about the Shanshanosaurus and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


Shantungosaurus may have been the largest hadrosaur. It is larger than some of the smaller sauropods. Named and described in 1973, Shantungosaurus is known from many disarticulated (not joined) bones from the Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.


In 1912 is a German paleontological expedition discovered the remains of several new Late Cretaceous dinosaurs in Egypt. Spinosaurus is a large theropod, was one of the new dinosaurs. It got its name, which means "spined reptile," because of the tall spines on its vertebrae (bones of the spine).


No dinosaur has been the subject of as much controversy as Stegosaurus, the armored dinosaur of the Late Jurassic. For more than a hundred years, this strange plant-eater has baffled paleontologists and captured the imagination of the public.


Struthiomimus ("ostrich mimic") is the best known of all the ornithomimids. A complete skeleton, which is now displayed at the American Museum of Natural History, was collected from the Judith River Formation of Alberta. Its name points to how similar its skeleton is to the modern Struthio (ostrich).


Styracosaurus was discovered in 1913 in the Belly River Formation of Alberta by Charles Sternberg. Lawrence Lambe named this animal Styracosaurus albertensis, which means "spiked reptile of Alberta," for its unusual neck frill.


The Talarurus is one of the better-known ankylosaurs from Mongolia. Several partial skeletons were excavated by Soviet paleontologists during the 1950s. One of these skeletons is mounted at the Paleontological Institute in Moscow.


This ankylosaur is known from two species. Tarchia giganteus is known from a complete skull and a partial skeleton. But, except for the skull, little of the material has been described. Learn more about the Tarchia and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


In 1948, several giant claw bones were found by a Soviet-Mongolian scientific team and because the shape of the claws is similar to the claws of some turtles, workers first thought they belonged to a giant turtle, so the specimen was named Therizinosaurus cheloniformis ("turtlelike scythe reptile").


Thescelosaurus was one of the last hypsilopbodontid dinosaurs. It is known from the end of the Late Cretaceous of Montana in the United States is and Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada. Learn more about the Thescelosaurus.


The first two Torosaurus specimens were a pair of skulls found in Wyoming in 1891 by John Bell Hatcher. They were described by Othniel Marsh later that same year. These two skulls were named Torosaurus latus and Torosaurus gladius.


Triceratops is one of the most spectacular and well known of all dinosaurs. It lived to the end of the Cretaceous. Triceratops was the largest of the ceratopsians. Learn more about the Triceratops and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


Troodon was described in 1856 by Joseph Leidy on the basis of a single small tooth. It was one of the first North American dinosaurs described. Learn more about the Troodon and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


Tylocephale is one of a group of new dome-headed dinosaurs discovered by the Joint Polish-Mongolian Paleontological Expeditions to the Gobi Desert. Learn more about the Tylocephale and other Late Cretaceous dinosaurs.


Even today, 90 years after it was discovered by Barnum Brown in the Hell Creek Formation of Montana, Tyrannosaurus rex remains the largest known predator to have walked the earth. Learn about Tyrannosaurus, Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and dinosaurs of all eras.


The most amazing find in Mongolia may be the discovery of the skeletons of the small theropod Velociraptor ("speedy predator") with its right arm clamped firmly in the beak of the small ceratopsian Protoceratops. Learn about Velociraptor, Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and dinosaurs of all eras.

Types of Dinosaurs

Types of dinosaurs include the lizard-hipped dinosaurs and the bird-hipped divisions of dinosaurs. Both of these types of dinosaurs probably shared a common ancestor during the Middle Triassic. How else are these dinosaurs related?

Dinosaur Bones

Dinosaur bones are all we have to study what these animals looked like and how they lived. Some of the most important dinosaur bones that paleontologists study come from the skull. Why is the skull so important?

Triassic and Early Jurassic Periods

The Triassic and early Jurassic periods were the time periods in which dinosaurs first appeared. It was also the time where all of the land on Earth was joined together in a single land mass. What types of dinosaurs lived during this time?


Anchisaurus was one of the first North American dinosaurs described. The first skeleton was found in 1818 and was originally mistake for human fossils. What did this early dinosaur look like and how did it live?