While dogs need and enjoy outdoor play and exercise, there are some circumstances when their outdoor time should be limited, or when they should stay indoors altogether.
"With certain surgeries," Dr. Sewell said, "dogs should be kept only in a crate. For other surgeries, they should only go out on a leash." Keeping a dog quiet and calm after surgery helps prevent further injury and allows him to concentrate energy on healing, rather than expending it on outdoor play.
Temperature extremes can also limit time outdoors. When the weather is blazing hot or below freezing, keep your pet's play and exercise sessions short but frequent. Dogs with thick coats can overheat in hot summer weather, and those with short coats may have trouble staying warm in cold weather. If you're uncomfortable outside, chances are good that your pup is, too. And just like you, dogs can get sunburned.
There are some environmental dangers that necessitate keeping your dog inside, at least temporarily. These include the presence of:
Heavy traffic around your home is another concern, although this danger is lessened by keeping your dog in a fenced-in area or on a leash. "Dogs in very urban environments or high-rise apartments should only go outside on a leash," Dr. Sewell said. Small breeds, he also noted, should never be outside alone.
While certain conditions warrant keeping your pet indoors, that's not his natural habitat; dogs benefit physically and mentally from exercising, playing and generally being outdoors.