How Animal Migration Works


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  • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. "Caribou Migration." http://arctic.fws.gov/carcon.htm
  • BBC (Alastair Fothergill, dir.). Planet Earth, Episode 1: "Pole To Pole." Original air date: April, 2006.
  • Bolen, Eric G. & Robinson, William L. Wildlife Ecology and Management (5th Edition). Benjamin Cummings, 2002.
  • British Trust for Ornithology. "Birds of Britain: Terns (Family Sternidae)." http://blx1.bto.org/birdfacts/grptexts/terns.htm
  • Cornell Lab of Ornithology. "All About Birds: Whooping Crane." http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/Whooping_Crane.html
  • ­Drickamer, Lee C., Vessey, Stephen H., & Meikle, Doug. Animal Behavior: Mechanisms, Ecology, Evolution (Fourth Edition). Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1996.
  • Kirschvink, J. L.; Walker, M. M. "Magnetite-based Magnetoreception in Animals: 25+ Years of Theory & Experimentation (Abstract only)." http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B31C1001K
  • Laymon, Stephen A. "Altitudinal Migration Movement of Spotted Owls in the Sierra Nevada, California." http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v091n04/p0837-p0841.pdf
  • McGrath, Susan. "Spawning Hope." Audubon Magazine, Sept. 2003. http://www.audubonmagazine.org/features0309/hope.html
  • National Park Service. "Migration Basics." http://www.nps.gov/akso/ParkWise/Students/ReferenceLibrary/general/MigrationBasics.htm
  • Purves, William K., Orians, Gordon H., & Heller, H. Craig. Life: The Science of Biology (Fourth Edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1995.
  • Roach, John. "Longest Animal Migration Measured, Bird Flies 40,000 Miles a Year." National Geographic News, August 8, 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/060808-bird-migration.html
  • Seaworld. "Habitat and Distribution (of Baleen Whales)." http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Baleen/habdisbw.html
  • University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill. "Baby Sea Turtles Use Earth's Magnetic Field To Navigate Across Atlantic Ocean And Back." ScienceDaily. Oct. 16, 2001. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/10/011012073954.htm
  • University of Washington NatureMapper Program. "Monarch Butterfly Facts." http://depts.washington.edu/natmap/facts/monarch_712.html
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "Whooping Crane Recovery." http://library.fws.gov/Pubs4/whoopingcrane_recovery01.pdf
  • Zyga, Lisa. "Bats may use magnetic polarity for navigation." Physorg Biology News, Sept. 20, 2007. http://www.physorg.com/news109511798.html­