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Is a Dead Stingray's Sting Still Lethal?

By: Josh Clark  | 

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  • Grenard, Steve. "Stingray injuries envenomation and medical management." Potamotrygon. Accessed February 22, 2009. http://www.potamotrygon.de/fremdes/stingray%20article.htm
  • Lovgren, Stefan. "Giant river stingray found near Thai city." National Geographic. April 29, 2008. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080429-giant-stingray.html
  • McEachran, J.D. and de Carvalho, M.R. "Dasyatidae; stingrays." from "The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic; volume 1: introduction, molluscs, crustaceans, hagfishes, batoid fishes and chimaeras." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2002. http://www.fao.org/3/y4160e/y4160e00.htm
  • Meade, John L., MD. "Stingray envenomation: overview." eMedicine. November 19, 2008. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/772683-overview
  • Mebane, G. Yancey, MD. "Spines!" Divers Alert Network. January/February 1995. http://www.diversalertnetwork.org/medical/articles/article.asp?articleid=56
  • Peatling, Stephanie. "'Crocodile Hunter' death extremely rare, caught on film." National Geographic. September 6, 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/09/060905-irwin.html
  • Williamson, John A. "Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals." UNSW Press. 1996. https://books.google.com/books?id=YsZ3GryFIzEC&q=stingray#v=snippet&q=stingray&f=false
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