Octopuses in captivity present researchers with an excellent opportunity to learn more about their personas. Research on the octopus is still relatively new due to the animal's reclusive nature. It's fairly well-accepted among researchers that the octopus is an intelligent creature -- stories abound of those octopuses that manage to escape from their aquariums to pry open bins of food, and those that learn to solve mazes or pick up red balls as opposed to white ones [source: Stewart]. But could they have personalities?
After she heard that some interesting octopus characters at the Seattle Aquarium were given names -- a practice generally reserved only for the most advanced species -- marine biologist Jennifer A. Mather wanted to find out the answer. Thus, Leisure Suit Larry, a particularly touchy-feely octopus; Emily Dickinson, a recluse; and Lucretia McEvil, who destroyed the interior of her tank, became the starting point for a revealing study.
To be fair, personality is a hard thing to prove, but Mather and marine biologist Roland C. Anderson pinned down a method for the study: They would identify a number of personality traits and then rate each animal against each of those traits. They exposed 44 red octopuses to three different situations seven times, each for a period of two weeks. Did the octopuses show personality? The answer was a resounding yes. In all, the test octopuses displayed 19 distinct behaviors, which the researchers categorized into three buckets -- activity, avoidance and reactivity. Emily Dickinson, for example, would have been rated low on activity, high on avoidance and low on reactivity because she liked to stay in her den no matter what. You can find more about the personality study in the February 2007 issue of Natural History.
The scientific community's obvious interest in the octopus underscores the creature's fascinating qualities. Be sure to click on the links on the following page to see some incredible footage of octopuses in action and learn more about related HowStuffWorks topics.
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
More Great Links
- "A Legend of the Deep" Nature. PBS Educational Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/octopus/legend.html
- "Cephalopod." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007. http://encarta.msn.com
- "Cephalopods." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Invertebrates/Facts/Cephalopods
- "Common Octopus." National Geographic. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/common- octopus.html?nav=A-Z
- "Giant Pacific Octopus." National Geographic. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/giant-pacific- octopus.html
- Helm, Burt, and Adam Aston. "Taking Lessons in Optics from the Octopus." Business Week. (Jan 31, 2005): 62. (Jan. 26, 2008) http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
- Mather, Jennifer A. "Eight Arms, with attitude: octopuses count playfulness, personality, and practical intelligence among their leading character traits." Natural History 116.1 (Feb. 2007): 30(7). http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
- Mayell, Hillary. "Octopus Arms May Point Way to New Robot Designs." National Geographic News. Feb. 9, 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/02/0209_050209_octopus.html
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- Pickrell, John. "'Walnut-Size' Male Octopus Seen Alive for First Time." National Geographic News. Feb. 12, 2003.
- Roach, John. "Newfound Octopus Impersonates Fish, Snakes." National Geographic News. Sept. 7, 2001. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/09/0920_octopusmimic.html
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- Scheel, David. "Giant Octopus: Fact Sheet." August 10, 2001. http://marine.alaskapacific.edu/octopus/factsheet.html
- "Sea Chameleons." Nature. PBS Educational Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/octopus/chameleons.html
- Stewart, Doug. "Armed but not dangerous: is the octopus really the invertebrate intellect of the undersea world?" National Wildlife 35.n2 (Feb-March 1997): 32(8). (Jan. 27, 2008) http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
- Wheeler, K. and D. Fautin. 2001. "Cephalopoda" (on-line), Animal Diversity Web. (Jan. 25, 2008) http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts.information/Cephalopoda.ht ml
- "Wizards of the Sea." National Geographic Kids. (Feb. 5, 2008) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngkids/0410/index.html