Toads of the United States

There are about 15 species of true toads in the United States, all belonging to the genus Bufo. Some of them are also found in Canada and Mexico. They include:

American Toad

Body length is 2 to 4 1/2 inches (5 to 11.5 cm). The color ranges from olive to reddish brown on top, with dark markings. The American toad is found in southeastern Canada and the eastern half of the United States.

The American toad is B. americanus.

Fowler's Toad

Body length is 2 to 3 1/4 inches (5 to 8.3 cm). Fowler's toad is usually gray or brown on top, but sometimes is reddish. It is found from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, in southern Michigan, and in parts of the lower Mississippi Valley. It is also found in southern Canada.

Fowler's toad is B. woodhouseifowleri.

Great Plains Toad

Body length is 2 to 4 1/2 inches (5 to 11 cm). This toad is gray, brown, or olive on top, with large dark-green blotches. It is found over the Great Plains region and in northeastern Mexico.

The Great Plains toad is B. cognatus.

Oak Toad

Body length is 3/4 of an inch to 1 1/4 inches (2 to 3 cm). The oak toad is gray or black on top with a yellowish-orange stripe down the middle of the back. It is found on the coastal plain from North Carolina to eastern Louisiana.

The oak toad is B. quercicus.

Giant Toad

Largest toad found in the United States, with a body length of 4 to 9 inches (10 to 23 cm). It is brown to greenish on top, with deep pits in the skin. It is found in the extreme southern part of Texas and south through South America.

The giant toad is B. marinus.

The giant toadThe giant toad grows up to nine inches long.